Recruitment and Selection of Staff

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Selection and recruitment of staff is critical to the success of an organization. The success of any organization is pegged on hiring people who possess the right skills, and experience that can seriously venture into the competitive market and promote the organizations goals. The organization must thus invest a lot of time and energy in ensuring that those that are selected successfully carry on with the organization’s mission as well as objectives. Hiring of staff can turn into a lottery if it is not done correctly.

With no signs of abating for the taut labor market, organizations are realizing that constant hiring of staff is the key to their success. The people’s expectations on the organization also continue to rise prompting the organization to improve on their strategies in order to obtain their confidence. However, for the ultimate success of any activity, a lot of planning must be exercised by the key people involved. An organization that intends to hire staff must show a lot of commitment to the activity and in order to be on the right track (Richardson, 2004).


Recruitment basically entails the process of legally finding a number of people so that both the organization and the people can work together for their long term interest, a process that should be done at the right time and place. In other words, the organization can select their staff from a pool of candidates to fill the available vacancies. Therefore, the recruitment of staff in an organization should be based on the position and level of the job. Some positions are filled internally while others may require external recruitment.

Without doubt recruiting of staff is an important activity so how it is done becomes even more essential. Poor strategies in recruiting can lead to long term consequences to the organization. At its worst, the organization will definitely lose its edge on the market in the face of fierce competition. Even public services that did not have to worry about their services have been forced to pay more attention to the delivery of their services as tax payers have too demanded better services. In essence they too are exploring all possible ways to satisfy their consumers, and as Melvin (2010) asserts, this provision starts with the process of recruitment.

Like in ABC, Inc., recruitment goes hand in hand with training since the new candidates must undergo extensive orientation in order to start working. However, there are aspects that must be religiously followed if this process is to succeed. Key among this is careful planning. An organization must not wake up one day and decide to recruit staff and on the other start training them. Carefully identify and document the process. In many organizations, job openings are advertised in order to ensure that the right people turn up.  Time schedules are also necessary to ensure that activities go as scheduled. The recruitment of staff must not interfere with the smooth running of other businesses in the organization.

Key problems

Carl Robins, ABC, Inc recruiter overlooked a few things in his recruitment endeavor.  Despite assuring the operations manager that everything will be arranged in time, Carl failed to carefully plan for the recruitment and training. Despite being new in the job, there are a few options that Carl should have considered. For instance, why were the applications not completed or their transcripts on file? It could mean that the recruits were not qualified for the job and thus chose not to attach their transcripts. This clearly indicates that the application for recruitments failed to follow the right criteria. This may also indicate that the recruits had not been interviewed and there may be no reference list should the organization need future reference. There may have been no job description for the new recruits or Carl simply failed to follow them. This provides a key problem in that the recruits may not be fit for the job and this will in turn have negative consequences for the organization.

Similarly, Carl did not adequately plan nor schedule the training as would have expected. The applications were not reviewed on time and the new hires had not been sent to the clinic. The new recruiter waited until the last minute to review the files. The new recruits had not been sent to the clinic, as the new campus recruiter, Carl is endowed with delegating responsibility so they ought to have been sent to the clinic earlier than that. In the same way, the training room had been booked for computer training the entire month and Carl was unaware of this, it is clear that adequate communication had not been made in the organization.

As stated in the thesis, the selection and recruitment of staff in an organization is critical to its success and ample preparation is necessary. The problems that arose at ABC, Inc clearly indicate that the new recruiter was poorly prepared for the job and this led to the defects. Poor coordination of activities in the organization also led to the problems in the long run. For instance Carl should have checked the bookings of the training room in order to make amendments or schedule the training for a later date. In as much as Carl is quite new on the job most of the issues arose because he lacked preparation and planning. There was no clear policy on the recruitment process and the training schedule. For effectiveness in recruitment, proper planning ought to have been put in place.



Being the last week of May, it would be impossible to hold the training at the scheduled time; however, Carl still has a few options he could explore. Hiring decisions is an investment that secures the future an organization. The way in which it is done is very essential. The best thing for the new ABC, Inc recruiter to do is to review the whole recruitment. It would not be a noble idea for him to proceed with training for recruits whose transcripts are missing.  Prepare a detailed job description for the new recruits and demand for the transcripts to be presented. If some of the recruits fail to meet the criteria, re advertise the job in due time and get more recruits to fill the positions.

Alternatively, Carl can re schedule the time set for training since the training room may not be booked for the entire day. For instance the training can be moved to early morning hours or late evening hours or during the weekends. However, this would be quite challenging considering the transcripts are missing, the screening has not been done and the training manuals are missing. Should this be possible, Carl could delegate responsibility to a colleague and ensure these issues are settled within a day or two.

However, both options will impact on the organization and its employees. The first option means that the organization will be able rectify previous mistakes and work towards its success. The second option however may mean that the organization may end up hiring incompetent people and this will have long term negative consequences to the success of the organization. Rescheduling the time for training may also not go well with the new employees since normal working hours are specified. It will be even more difficult if the contact already states otherwise.


Proposed solution

It will be necessary for ABC, Inc to reschedule the training for another month. Since this is a major milestone for the company to success, a lot of caution needs to be taken in hiring them. Reviewing their transcripts and sending them for screening should be done immediately. If they satisfy the job description, then Carl can confidently set the training for July. He should ensure that the right bookings are made in regard to the training room and the orientation manuals prepared.

In the same way, if the new hires fail to meet the job description, it will be necessary to re hire new people. Unfortunately, this means that the company will spend more money on recruiting but the long term consequences will be appealing. ABC, Inc can also use outsourcing as an alternative. This way, they will enlist the services of experts in hiring and also do so at a cheaper cost. It will also be to the disappointment of the operations manager since Carl had already assure her that all is in order. However, based on the available options, it will only be wise if the training is postponed.


For ABC, Inc to develop a significant recruitment policy, they need to know how their system operates. It is essential for the new recruiter to conduct a recruit audit of the company to evaluate its need and the necessary amendments. For instance how have recruitments been done in the past? What changes have occurred in the company that would necessitate a review of these procedures? After he has had a clear picture, then he can proceed to hire recruits based on this understanding. Subsequently having reviewed the hiring cycle, Carl will be able to successfully hire and recruit people into the organization. Consequently, since hiring and training go hand in hand, several aspects regarding the organization coordination of activities need to be rectified. Though Carl had failed to adequately plan, the rest of the staff in the organization reveal there is lack of coordination in the company. For instance the training office should not be booked for an entire month. The period is too long since other activities run in the office. In the same way, communication is important and ensures procedures are communicated in the office making it easier to coordinate events.

In conclusion, whatever the policy used in recruitment, the main aim is to recruit candidates best qualified for a job and who will exemplify a lot of commitment. Only such a team can carry forward the goals of the organization and contribute its success. Without doubt, such a delicate process will require a lot of commitment, planning as well as skills. As Richardson asserts, the success of any recruitment process is highly related to its planning. Therefore, ABC, Inc. needs to review its policies and improve on planning. This way, future job recruitments will be conducted with ease (Richardson, 2004).

Online Paramedic consulting center

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Paramedics are leaders who accept hardships and responsibility. Their excellent judgment and know how in decision prioritization gives them an edge in establishing patients rapport so as to act in the best interest of the patient. In other words, paramedics give hope to those who need it desperately; they save lives. They are people with good medical knowledge. (Dick W. F., 2003 pp. 35–37.)

There have been many cases of declining paramedic care to patients and consultancy services for doctors. More often than not, complaints have floated that hospitals are ignoring their patient’s needs and they are getting the wrong medication. This is attributed to high mortality rate among patients with serious conditions like heart diseases, kidney failures or merely high stress levels. (Nancy Evans, 2009)


Aware of this problems and driven by a passion to create ethical professionals who can save lives, I decided to come up with a business that will offer pre hospital counseling, recommend medication for patients and also educate physicians on how to handle patients with different needs. I also thought of simplifying the complex process of license acquisition for paramedics by offering it in my online business. People will be able to buy a page and host it as theirs and offer services as individuals. The credibility I will gain as a business, which is to be determined by those I will sell pages to will also work for or against their new businesses. At a point I am planning to advance from offering the advice to clinical doctors to a paramedic consultant worldwide.

The good thing with online service is that it will be accessed worldwide and at my comfort base, I can save lives in the extreme opposite end.


The emerging trends in the field have made it possible to have mobile paramedics, online paramedics and hospital based paramedics. The excellent idea of online paramedics is welcome; however, it comes with its own challenges which must be addressed.  It will mean that some established paramedics will be forced out of business as they struggle to cope with the new technology. Working under a supervisor can also prove add and this will bring factions in the whole field making it hard for efficient delivery of services to customers. Where different experts feel that they have different special qualifications, it will always delay decision making as each and every wants his/her opinion to be considered. (Bell, G., Hindley, N., Rajiyah, G. & Rosser, R. 1990, pp. 154-162)



The enrolment for certified paramedics is limited making it difficult for delivery of services to all parts effectively. After having spent more than six years in study and requiring two or more years in the field so as to get the license, I have seen it good to come up with a business which will bring together both the licensed and the unlicensed to share ideas and give aid to patients. The increasing cases of clinical doctors negligence has prompted this measure, one which will likely solve the problem of mistaken diagnosis and establish the use of newest technology in fighting diseases. Through the business, even doctors will have a forum to study and ask questions regarding patient interaction and medicinal administration.


Again, with the increased number of outpatient centers, patients will need information at the click of a button regarding their conditions. My business will be fitting in a society where every one is a ‘doctor’ who needs advice before administering dosage on a patient. As said earlier it will be information hub for matters regarding clinical matters. Qualified applicants for web pages will be assimilated to the program only after interviews, tests and various exams. (Sackett, David L; Rosenberg, William M C; Gray, J A Muir; Haynes, R Brian; Richardson, W. Scott, 1996, pp. 71–72.)


Project goal

The pooling of all forms of paramedic specialists into a single community will create a source of information for patients and doctors to effectively handle their conditions. The website will have various links directing a paramedic to different information regarding the type of emergency at hand. The site will have indexes with respect to the level of skill a particular paramedic has i.e.  Common technician skills, advanced technician skills and/or advanced paramedic skill, emergency issues like breathing and airway management, circulation and cardiac monitoring, drug administration among others and a dropdown list leading to various procedure pertaining the emergency in question.


It’s a long-term goal that the site will expand by selling license rights to qualified paramedic professionals to input quality information on various procedures, maintain and market their sub-sites world-wide.


Assumptions and constraints

Running a website is expensive. However, the cost of buying a domain has remained within reach for business entities hence a plus for my business. The online paramedic consulting center will buy its own domain so as to remain free of spam and malicious change of content by unknown people. As a starting move, I will buy fewer bites hoping to reach a smaller area and then later expand as per the response I will get. Through liaison with other established paramedics, I will amass the much required knowledge on what services to offer in my business. As at now I have divisions such as common technician skills, advanced technician skills and/or advanced paramedic skill, emergency issues like breathing and airway management, circulation and cardiac monitoring, drug administration among others and a dropdown list leading to various procedures as pertaining the emergency in question.


The major assumption in coming up with this business is that internet charges will not go high than I can manage as a new entity dealing with complex issues of medicine. Them remaining constant will give me a chance to research and enroll in others to gain experience as I run mine too.


The assumption that not licensing for paramedics will not remain as low as it is now so that many qualified people can join the growing website will depend on the governments ability to liaise with other countries to pass medical bills which favor licensing and recognition of qualified doctors. Lastly, the governments’ efforts to make it possible for everyone to access technology is a major boost as most of the patients who need these services are in the marginalized areas. It’s my hope that the efforts to come up with outpatient facilities will continue as that will pose a greater need for consultancy services from my business.


Being a pioneer in the field, I am bound to get all the attention needed from authorities and hospitals in regard to their problems with patients and medicine technicalities. (“Tactical Paramedic Operations”. Retrieved June 2011 at



Again this new trend of online paramedic will be met by challenges of trust and licensing. The world today is full of counterfeit products. A malicious company would come up with the same services, knowing very well that they are not qualified so as to reap the many benefits there are. To fight such companies, stringent measures which translate to high cost on part of the business will need to be put in place. A powerful online monitoring device and a unique code for the business should be developed. (Wilson, R.M., Runciman, W. B. & Gibberd, R. W., 1995 pp.


A thorough scrutiny of qualification by the concerned authorities prior to licensing of such a business may delay the start of operations hence affecting the achievement of set goals. At such a time, a more organized business entity might come up and go ahead to command a large market segment to the disadvantage of this new business. Customers who are not connected to the internet or are technologically illiterate will not benefit from the system. Even as the business comes up, the large target is cities and suburbs were the service is not as highly needed. Even for those with internet, there are medical terms and conditions which need to be explained by illustrations face to face. Therefore that’s another area of challenge to the new online business.


The site will give an avenue for students and patients as well as established doctors a chance to ask questions regarding the field. Through discussions, improvements in the field will be communicated and implemented for better services and growth. (Ramon Z. Shaban, 2004)



  1. Home based office or a rented premise office
  2. Mac Computers or Microsoft Computers
  3. Mobile phones

Option 1

I considered an independent office or my own residence.

1.1 Home based office

Advantages of home based office

  • No extra rent expense
  • Flexibility to work on many activities through-out the day.


  • Clients will not feel free to do face to face consultations if need be.
  • There is problem of space for expansion.

1.2  Outside independent premise.


  • There is space for expansion
  • Clients can come in for consultations freely
  • It can host as many equipment as possible for the business


  • High cost in renting a business premise
  • The place possess a high risk of vandalism
  • Any lack of power or other important facilities in the rented house means extra expense on the business.

COSTS: Electricity, security, location and internet availability considered, renting a premise will cost around $500 per month. Costs of cleaning and other office miscellaneous will amount to $20 per day. In total per month, I will need $1100 to operate a rented premise. In my house I will cut this cost by 90% to $110 as I will pay for internet only.

RISK: At my place, incase of any theft I will lose even my personal property. If the government recognizes that I am operating without a license from home, I can be sentenced to imprisonment and my property taken. Rented office is no better as lack of insurance means that in the event of fire of theft, the owner can not replace your property.

Option 2

2.1 Computers


  • Web pages can be accessed fast and are well visible.
  • They can store large amounts of data due to their large hard disks.
  • Different experts in different locations of the globe can engage in a meeting from their offices, teleconferencing. This is because it combines audio and visual.


  • They discriminate against those who can’t see as they can’t read posts or see demos online.
  • Computer break down can mean that it’s the end of its life especially if no one is able to repair it. If operated by people who do not know what they are doing, they can be permanently damaged.
  • Crushing of computers can lead to loss of important data.
  • They need frequent software updates which sometimes are hard to get. Some of these software’s need trained people who may not be available.

COSTS: Macs are the best computers in the market as they are not easily affected by viruses. They also combine a wide range of software’s as compared to Microsoft computers. One Mac will approximately cost $800 and its software’s about $300 making it a total of $1100. A Microsoft computer will go for approximately $400 with all software’s intact. A starting office will need four computers, one to act as server, one for reception, and the other two for professional experts. If I am to opt for Mac then I will need a total of $4400 while for Microsoft it will be $1600

RISKS: they pose the risk of making professionals zombies and antisocial. As they sit and offer their services at the comfort of their offices, paramedics may forget the very vital element of customer rapport.

Option 3

3.1  Mobile phones


  • Portable
  • Personal


  • Display screen is too small to read some certain content.
  • Not all mobile phones have internet features and those that have the features are expensive.
  • They discriminate against those who can’t hear or talk.

COST: Equipping an entire unit with mobile phones will cost a lot. It is so because they are expensive with internet features and need top-up every now and then for operations. It will also need special contract with mobile service providers to get a large bandwidth and subsidized rates for the clients. One mobile phone will go for about $200 and a top-up of $50 daily. I need 20 cells therefore coming to an initial cost of $4000 and $1500 worth of top-up per month.

RISKS: Cells are subject to loss and breakdown according to the way they are handled. They can not carry large amount of data and what they can do is limited. Use of mobile phone has the risk of being traced and information altered.



Online paramedic consulting center will thus operate from a rented promise and use Mac computers rather than mobile phones. It is better to incur a large expense at the start than a lot of repair costs as time goes on.


Timeline for the Idea

The idea will be implemented in four phases of four months each which started a while ago in the month of April.


Phase 1: April to August 2011

Extensive research is going on to establish the needs which have not been addressed by paramedics. It is a tour to establish whether or not online paramedic consulting center is the only of its kind and if not, what new thing am I bringing into the market.


Phase 2: September to December 2011

Having concluded and compiled the research report, I will move around to identify the best locations where I can set an office. It will also be the time when I will look for sponsors to fund my project.


Phase 3: January to April 2012

It will be characterized by interviews for those to work in the business center. The exams and tests will be carried within this time so that efficient employees are identified early. The period will be characterized by acquisition of operations license, purchase of equipment and setting of office for work.


Phase 4: May to September 2012

This last phase will mostly be characterized by agreement of all concerned stakeholders to commence business operations. Extensive campaigns to create awareness through the internet, radio, TVs and newspapers as well as billboards will be the order of this phase.

Computer Information Systems Management

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This report will examine the various aspects of computer information system management. These will include the necessary education, credentials, training and typical duties. It will also look at the potential salaries and benefits as well as future advancements in the field.

Brief background of CISM

The modern office or work place requires IT in order to work efficiently and more reliably. Computer and information systems management thus come in to administer and implement this technology to the organization. They are thus concerned with computer activities in the firm. Their work is to consult with the managers in order to come up with goals and aspects of technology such as internet, network and development of software. Managers in computer information systems are entitled with directing the work of IT professionals like computer engineers, programmers, system analysts and specialists (Jha, 2007).

Current directions in CISM job market

The global market is increasingly becoming competitive. The role of technology in the success of organizations can no longer be dismissed. Companies and organizations are constantly being faced with the need to use new applications in the workplace. To remain in the competitive market, companies will therefore have to install networks, intranets and websites that exhibit a high level of sophiscation. The most effective software will need to be adopted in order to deal with trouble when it occurs. Computer Information Systems Managers will be vital in overseeing these functions (Singh, 2007).

In 2008, 293,000 CIS managers held job positions in the job market. 16 % of these were in the computer designs and other related fields. This figure is expected to rise in the next decade by over 20%. The growth is far more higher compared to other occupations. It is therefore evident that those in the job market need to be more excellent and skilled to fulfill the job market demands (Wilson, 2011).

Among the largest employers in computer information systems management are financial and insurance firms, government bureaus, manufacturers and businesses. In essence the growth of the economy is almost directly related to the growth of CISM. The increase in jobs will without doubt enhance the economy in many countries. In the same way, the efficiency in offering services in many organizations will lead to increased production (Sadagopan, 2004).

Career Options in Computer Information Systems Management

Necessary education

Basically, prospects who wish to hold managerial positions in Computer Information Systems Management must have a bachelor’s degree in a computer related field. However, most firms now prefer to have managers who hold an MBA in technology. There are also the common major fields for undergraduate students. Such are: computer science, management information systems and information science.


For individuals who want to qualify as computer information systems managers, a lot of skills and knowledge about the field is necessary. Many employers are specific with details and require managers who express and possess a great understanding of the software and technology that is used for the job. In most cases most of this knowledge can be gained through working experience but that is not to mean fresh graduates are not required in the field. Professional certification also assists most prospective managers in gaining employment. They are often specific of the products and can be run by software companies (Marcic & Daft, 2008).

Similarly, managers in this field require a vast understanding and knowledge of the production practices. This is because they are entitled with making crucial decisions in the organization especially because IT holds a central position in most of the organizations. As a result many firms will consider hiring managers who have knowledge on management of businesses. Communication and leadership skills are also one of the many qualities that these managers ought to possess sine they are also responsible for monitoring other employees. Armed with these credentials, a manager can successfully explore the rich opportunities in the field (Marcic & Daft, 2008).


Training in computer information systems management varies depending on the level. Generally, it takes 4years to pursue an undergraduate degree in any computer related field. During this, courses training in computer programming, science and engineering is undertaken.  Mathematics and statistics are also crucial part of this training. General courses in English and Communications are also undertaken as part of the college courses necessary to attain the university degree.

An MBA on the other hand requires two years to finish after successfully completing the undergraduate degree.  During this training, the focus is on courses such as systems management, marketing, finance, accounting and design. However few managers rise to their positions with their first degree and earn their MBA later while still working.

Typical duties

The duties of a computer information systems manager are defined but may vary depending on an organization. Basically, they are entitled with coordinating, planning and researching on the activities of an organization. These activities are mostly computer related.  Managers analyze the computer related needs of an organization and formulate goals and requirements of the organizations. In most organizations, they are also entitled with supervising their subordinates (Gallettta & Zhang, 2006).

However, they may have other duties depending on the nature of the organization.  For instance, managers in an IT firm develop budgets and formulate schedules for the IT projects in an organization. Chief technologists on the other hand ensure that they evaluate the new and innovation technologies of an organization and determine how they can help the organization.  The duties of a manager in this field may therefore vary depending on the nature of the organization and the level of education. An undergraduate for instance may have a different role with that of a postgraduate manager.

Salary and benefits

Salary too varies with responsibility and the specialty. For example those that specialize in software earn differently from those in insurance firms. However, the mean salary earned by managers in this field is $112,000.  In addition, most of the managers earn extra money as benefits and bonuses (Appendices 2). These benefits are mostly enjoyed by those in higher positions. The following graph shows salaries earned in various managerial positions. (Gallettta & Zhang, 2006).

Graph: Salaries for managers

Field Salary in $
Management of enterprises and companies 115,150
Software publishers 126,840
Computer related services and design 118,120
Insurance managers 109,810
Depository intermediation 113’390


Prognosis for future employment and advancement

As indicated earlier, the employment rate for computer information systems managers is expected to grow tremendously by the end of the decade compared to other professions. Technology will continue to be an important aspect in many organizations prompting them to hire more managers in this field to meet this demand. In the same way, security is equally important for organizations and businesses and will lead to subsequent demand for managers in CISM.

Equally, a lot of advancements will be experienced in the field. Managers may rise to higher leadership positions in an organization. For instance, those that continue to further their education stand greater chances of being promoted to higher levels and being bestowed with more responsibility. For instance, a project manager in an organization may rise to be the chief information officer of the same organization.


Without doubt, computer and information systems management is a field that is growing tremendously. The numerous opportunities based in the field leave a lot to be explored by those willing to join the field. However, the growth also demands that those who want to venture in the field acquire a lot of skills and exhibit fine excellence too. It is clear that this field requires utmost commitment and desire in order to succeed.

Most organizations require managers who can work with tight deadlines and taut budgets. It thus calls for managers who can work up to this pressure and satisfy the demands of the many clients in the field. As already seen, the salaries are attractive and the benefits too and this should be one of the many incentives that motivates managers to work.  However, the implications of embarking on this career lies on the changing trends in technology. For instance, the job description in Appendices 1, the employer prefers an MBA to a degree. Managers may thus need to upgrade their education once in a while or risk being unproductive to their organizations (Wilson, 2011).

Motivation of Photojournalism

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What is photojournalism

Photography is regarded in many quarters as an art science and practice. Photography happens when images are created by recording radiation on a radiation sensitive medium. Light emitted or reflected off of objects is captured and transmitted to a light sensitive film or plate where the image is formed (Campbell,1987). In digital photography, a focal plane array sensor is used which converts the light into pixels which then electronically developed and stored as a computer file.

Photography has been used in many instances to communicate ideas, feelings, news and to tell stories. Photography has been put categorically in groups that include but not entirely, advertising, fashion, crime scene, still life, food, editorial, portrait landscape and paparazzi (Spencer, 1973). The image is much more powerful than the written word for the image is visually disturbing and thus more mentally stimulating than the words (Lester, 1991). Photojournalism caps as a much more effective medium of communicating change or the need for it thereof.

History of photojournalism

News stories had gone without illustrations since the inception of the printing press until the 1880’s when engravings were re-intepreted by engravers so as to be printed. Carol Szathmari- a Romanian painter, lithographer and photographer was the first photojournalist. Due to the crave for more realistic illustrations in newspapers, it became common for exhibitions of a limited number of newsworthy photographs (Taft, 1964).

Ht first halftone image appeared in print in 1880 and 7 years later the flash powder was invented which made it possible to take photographs indoors. As time progressed, so did photography and in the 1930’s, most news publications drew their numbers by the photographs that they used. Sometime readers had to re-read captions to understand what the picture tried to communicate. This is because some of the images appeared smudged, and on poor print paper.

It was not until 1980’s that offset printing was adopted which produced beter quality photographs on white photographic paper. It was in this period that photojournalism was accepted as an art and images by photojournalists could be found exhibited in art galleries.

Ethical considerations

Photojournalism is bound by almost the same ethical standards in journalism. What to frame, shoot and even edit are questions that photojournalists need to ask themselves every time. In the digital age, photojournalists usually have no control over the images they have snapped once they get into the hands on the photo editor. Further digital images are prone to manipulation, reproduction and can easily be sent from one individual to the next with the click of a button (L P. Gross, J S Katz, J Ruby, 2003)

Although there is a degree of manipulation that is required, it is hard to determine what level is acceptable. Most ethical issues have been put into law in some countries and one may not be able to publish certain images in a certain country but the challenge is that those same images may be published in another county without contravening the law. (L P. Gross, J S Katz, J Ruby, 2003)

Technology has also had a huge impact on photojournalism. Camera phones have essentially turned every individual capable of purchasing one a photojournalist in their own right. The internet has changed the scene such that transmission of images can occur within minutes of snapping. Armed with a phone or modem, digital camera and a laptop computer, occurrences can be communicated in a very short while(New York Times, 2009). But this alone will not define the future of photography. Content is still king and it is those photographs that are content-full that will advance photography. The advent of cheap cameras has also made it easy to acquire them and inadvertently turn persons into a photojournalist. This has lead to torrential amounts of amateur images being sent into news websites.

In the 1930s another form of photography came up called pure photography came up and was spread. This type of photography was characterized by non manipulation, sharper focus, high contrast and lack of cropping. This is regarded as the purist form of photography (VAM).

There are basic principles that differentiate photojournalism from other forms of photography. Chief among these are objectivity which aims at seeing to it that the images are fair and accurate in the tone and content of the events that they represent, timely which tries to show that the images have meaning in the context of a recent event and narrative which aims at supporting a story and making it relatable at a cultural level (kobre, 2008).

In photojournalism, it is a form of photography that includes the capturing, editing and final presentation of material either for broadcast or publication purposes. A photojournalist is tasked with the visual reportage of facts. A photographer and a photojournalist are two different people. While a photographer shoots to capture the ‘noun’ in his image the photojournalist shoots to capture the ‘verb’ (Kobre, 2008).

There are various ways in which a photographer can bring out the sense of journalism using his trade. Primary to these are the following considerations

What is the message that the photographer trying to put across- if a photographer is clear about what he wants to communicate then it becomes easier to shoot a subject that has matter concerning the same.

Second question to ask oneself is what value the picture adds to the report- an image is supposed to complete a report which means they should be related. If a photo completes a report by relation and goes on to make information clearer then it is a good image(B, Horton,2001) Further, the relationship should be obvious so as not to confuse the reader or person looking at the photo. In a photo story there should be a logical progression of images to create a sequence that tells a story.

There are many tips given on how to shoot a good photograph. One of the chief concerns is lighting. Usually for photographers natural lighting is most flattering in the morning and in the evening. Any other time is too dark or too unflattering (B, Horton,2001). It is advisable to play around with lighting if one has the time. For persons who shoot for news it is advisable to look for the best positioning that will give you the best lighting to shoot from.

Photographs that have things on their plane are more appealing than those out of plane- they appear to distract the person looking at them rather than informing him.

Photojournalists go to the ends of the earth to unearth unseen phenomena and bring to people’s knowledge activities and occurrences that had previously been little or totally unknown (Spencer, 1973). By doing so they inform the masses on what is happening in their own worlds. Photojournalism though needs to be as personal to the viewer as possible but still have a universal appeal. Photojournalism’s primary reason of existence is to document events but photojournalism has a higher calling to evoke change in society (cohen, 2008).

For any photojournalist, having their prints used to tell a story by pictures is probably the ultimate experience (Kobre & Brill, vol 1). Photojournalists comb the world for stories to tell and when they are able to communicate with their form of media then it is an accomplishment.

Photojournalists main interest is to tell stories with images that compel a people to take decisive action to bring change or to simply to make a problem known by showing a fellow human in a condition that would  arouse feelings of need for change. By concentrating on a single effect on a single human and the totality of the adversity then it is possible to arouse feelings of pain, pleasure, pity, anger and many others that may bring about change.

Photography has changed a lot since it begun in the 1830’s. while in the early stages of development had few technicians with the know how to record images, nowadays anyone with a camera phone can push a button and take a photograph though these are usually without critical content(cohen,2008). A good photograph usually tells a story without the need of using extra media- in this case words. A good photograph will give information on a subject and wake people from inaction to  a revolution. Usually, it is out of ignorance that inaction thrives but photography exposes the reality and causes a discomfort that asks for action by advancing a public discourse on the matter. This eventually leads to change.

Photojournalists know that a photograph may adopt a negatively construed meaning while it was initially meant for a good cause. Just like meaning is derived in paintings so it is with photography. The people involved are the ones who create the meaning for themselves depending on how they choose to interpret it-depending on their cultural context.

Apart from change another reason for photojournalism is development. Need for change leads to action which eventually can be interpreted as development.

Far from that, the very core reason for photography is to provide an all-inclusive and faithful portrayal of the matter at hand. This though has not been what has been happening as some veteran photojournalists tend to believe. Photojournalists have become detached from the human being and shoot only to capture those images that tend to depict a condition of self replication- there is a lack of originality (Paul Levinson. 1997).

The future of photojournalism

From an artistic, stylistic, and aesthetic perspective the future of photojournalism has never looked better.

The future of photojournalism both as an occupation as well as a means of personal expression necessitates a more humanistic and empathic style of visual practice and reportage. While markets for paparazzi pictures will continue to sustain our prurient interests, it is important to remember why people take images in the first place – to fix memories in time.

Photojournalism is an approach to photography that empowers people to record life as it happens, not just as people want it to happen. (J  H Newton.2001)

The photojournalist of the future will also know computerized pagination processes, web design, audio and video, and digital workflow systems. In many ways the future of photojournalism, through digital technologies, extends our capacity for seeing and making things seen in new and exciting ways. At the same time, we must be also take into consideration that digital technologies may represent an increased liability for photojournalists – one that continues to wrestle with issues of credibility, truthfulness, and sensitivity in a world hyper-saturated with images.


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Reading in the society is valued highly and even though a majority of children in most learning institutions do so with relative ease, a minority of these children experience specific difficulty in learning and are often referred to as dyslexic (Snowling, 2001). Such children exhibit certain reading abnormalities to be labeled as dyslexic. They experience reading difficulties, spelling problems and manipulation of numbers becomes difficult. When asked to read what they have written, the oral version is usually correct. For example while reading they confuse letters that are similar in shape or sounds. For instance for words, they may confuse horse and house whereas for letters they may confuse letter d and b. These words therefore prove to be very difficult for a dyslexic child to learn.

Writing also is no mean task for the dyslexic child. These children fail to keep up in line while writing resulting in very clumsy writing. The words are often shortened and repeated or appear in the wrong places. Letters tend to be fused up while writing creating difficulty for the reader as they appear to be so close together. The content of the writing with these children is often very rich but with numerous spelling mistakes. Unfortunately these children also experience comprehension difficulties, this is a result of their poor decoding. However, this  difficulty in comprehension is secondary and if the dyslexic child was relieved the task of decoding for example by reading it out to them then their comprehension would be like that of a normal child. Lundeberg &Hoien maintain that a dyslexic child also have very low listening command which in turn affects the difficulty in comprehension( Lundeberg &Hoien, 2000).

Their oral language is however normal as compared to that of other children. However scholars have provided evidence asserting that poor comprehenders often have pitiable oral language because of their inability to decode information properly. This can be true of dyslexic children. In regard to writing whether cursive or printing the dyslexic child often experiences difficulty. While printing they tend to mix the upper and lower cases with irregular arrangement and slanting. They have difficulty in writing within the margins and on the lines as appropriate. Their writing is often very clumsy, illegible and extremely immature.

Important to note, is that awful teaching, neglectful parents and difficult life at home may be the reason to many reading problems with many children but this is not the reason many children have dyslexia. With the emphasis on the society on literacy, the educators must be keen to identify the students with such a difference so that this difference does not translate into a disability making it more difficult for the student.


The subjects of this assessment are a pair of 13year old twin sisters who exhibit different degrees of dyslexia. The variance in the degree of dyslexia may be due to environmental factors that the two have been exposed to. The assessment criterion highly depends on the age of the child and whether the child is school going or an adult. The assessment tool here will depend on the age of the twins since it is the only information provided.  The results of the assessment will be evaluated separately because the twins also vary in their degree of dyslexia.

Traditionally, dyslexia was diagnosed through testing someone and later studying their results through sympotamology. However the method was wanting because it is possible that dyslexia results from physiological conditions such as vision or even hearing. Dyslexia cannot be classified as a disease but rather as a condition and in its assessment it is important to acknowledge the various strategies used in its diagnosis.

In this particular case therefore the twins are not exhibiting all the symptoms but rather some of the symptoms that suggest they might be suffer be suffering from the disorder. The fact that they exhibit symptoms not characteristic of other students suggests that they suffer from the condition.

Twin 1: She had irregular writing.

– Very clumsy.

-Spelling mistakes that ended in mixing up letters.

Twin 2: Confused words

-Poor numeral span.

-Reversing sounds.

–  Mispronouncing digraphs such as ‘ch’ and ‘sh’

– Excellent spelling skills that show she could correctly spell the words even though they were wrongly written.


Various methods were used in helping the twins overcome the problem of dyslexia. The fact that they exhibited different degrees of the disorder meant that the assessment criterion was different for each one of them. For the first twin:

  1. An alphabetic arc was used to assist her in learning numbers and the alphabet. The alphabetic arc can be put in different colors for different numbers to emphasize them.
  2. Management of the child’s handwriting was also done. A handwriting programme is necessary to assist the dyslexic child improve on her handwriting.
  3. Practice by the child to instill what is already learnt is also important. The child was encouraged to constantly memorize what they have learned in order to encourage it to move into the long term memory.

The second twin was also put on intervention measures regarding her specific problem. These were:

  1. Discouraging independent work by the child but instead encouraging the parent to assist the child in her work to instill better writing skills.
  2. The alphabetic arc was also encouraged to help the girl master the different numerals.
  3. Personalizing work was also applied for instance the child was encouraged to use color to put more emphasis on words she had difficulty in differentiating.
  4. The reversing of words often results from difficulties in decoding and therefore phonological training was encouraged. This will encourage several regions of the brain to be active resulting in better phonological skills.

The outcome was that the first twin was able to improve her hand writing and write more consistently compared to before. The intensive practice was able to make her writing fall a bit on the lines as opposed to before when her writing always seemed to be irregular and completely illegible. The alphabetic arc also proved to be an important tool in masterly of the letters since the spelling improved tremendously. Even though the spelling was still wanting the student had a remarkable change. In the way she was spelling her words. Her clumsy handwriting translated to clearer handwriting an indication that the extensive training was fruitful. The constant practice was also proving to be important.

The second twin also recorded a tremendous difference in her writing. The parent at home was encouraged to be part of her work and instead discourage her from working independently. The parent admitted to having noticed a positive difference in her work as her numeral span improved. However phonological training is by far the most effective since within a week the twin was not reversing words as much as before. The student’s font was changed to point attention to the difference in words that she previously confused.

Personalizing her work also resulted in a positive outcome since different colors were used to put more emphasis on the words that were difficult to distinguish. In her case the alphabetic arc also helped in assisting her highlight the difference between letters with similar shape. It is therefore necessary to device these interventions as a teaching method for students with dyslexia.

Teaching plan:

The teaching plans main focus will be on how it is taught and what is taught. The initial step will be to teach the child the phonemes: let the child learn how to listen tom a single word and then break it down into its various sounds. Alternatively let them learn how to take a single sound and combine it to make a complete word. This usually is the easiest skill to learn even before the teacher introduces printing. Snowling also acknowledges the role op morphology and asserts that a teacher should expand the child’s vocabulary as well as their ability to learn and spell words correctly. She says that research has revealed that dyslexic children should be encouraged to combine all their senses that is, auditory, kinesthetic, visual and tactile (Snowling, 2000).

Dyslexic children also have problems intuiting the written language. The teacher’s role is to explicitly explain the rules to them. It is however important to explain one rule at a single time, let the child fully comprehend it both in spelling and in writing then introduce them to second rule. By the time of their identification, dyslexic children happen to be confused regarding the written word so it is important to establish a solid foundation by going back to the basics (Ott, 2006).

As a teacher it is good to acknowledge the age group within which a dyslexic child lies, this way you will be able to apply the most appropriate method in helping the child perform. Usually an orientation through counseling is encouraged. This is particular for children above nine years of age. This is due to the fact that they are already going through a lot of frustration trying to write, read and spell well like the other children in their age. An orientation through counseling will enable them perceive themselves more clearly and give an insight to their condition (Braun & Davis).

More importantly it is necessary for the parent to avoid labeling the students. Referring to students as dyslexic may only make it more difficult for them to improve. Do not criticize the students especially when you realize they are taking time to learn but instead express your patient with them. Using your own methods for instance in mastery of symbols, because initially they may not learn the concept as their own but need to repeat it over and aver again (Braun, 1997). In conclusion every student with dyslexia is capable of improving. The teacher’s role in helping them improve surpasses that of the parent.

Behavioral Transformation

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The paper focuses on the concept of behavioral transformation in the organization. The concept is clearly defined for the reader. It explains the role behavioral transformation plays in the organization and the overall process. The paper also explores the challenges that the management has experienced in trying to introduce change in their organization and the role of human resource managers in behavioral transformation.



Behavioral transformation is a necessary process in many organizations (Merry, 2006). Merry defines the concept as the planned and managed process of purposely shaping an organizations behavior. Usually the transformation stems from the organization’s management and leadership but the process may involve experts for its success. Barret on the other hand stresses that for a behavioral transformation to take place the organizations management ought to express very high level of commitment to the overall process. He goes on to classify the process into two levels that is, first and second order transformation. The former involves changing one aspect of a behavior while the former focuses on all aspects of a behavior (Barret ,2006).

Theories and academic work on behavioral transformation

Theories have suggested that for behavioral transformation to take place, the underlying values and systems must also change. The change agent must be aware of the population of the organizations employee and the executive too in order to design a successful transformation. This is important because the process mainly entails learning and discovering as earlier concepts are generated into new ones (Salancik, 2001).

Globalization has played a major role in catalyzing change in much organization. There has been a tremendous demand for organization to transform and stay afloat in whatever they do. Human resource managers have therefore been entitled to the task of ensuring that their organizations are up to date with the current issues (Brudney & Rainey, 2000). Another reason for this demand is the diversity in their clients culture wise. Many organizations these days deal with clients from diverse cultures hence they are being faced with the need to be more accommodative with regard to culture (Hoyte & Greenwood, 2007).

Burke’ s suggestion is that when the behavior system of an organization does not explain reality anymore, and  does not  help in shaping its policy and the operations, then a crisis is bound to develop. The organization usually ceases to function or underperforms prompting the demand for action. However, to successfully conceive new ideas in the organization, there must be widespread acceptance of its elements. The new idea must also compete positively with the old one lest it risks total rejection by the ones involved (Burke, 2005).

The process of transformation in an organization is neither easy nor smooth. It goes through periods of crisis and encounters resistance by the involved staff. Translation of the new paradigm into to operational procedures and concepts is often problematic. Megginson explains that a period of mourning is experienced as old values are left. Resistance is experienced where high level values are introduced arousing fear and emotions (Megginson, 2002).

Ideas also undergo restriction especially when they are viewed to support the management. Usually the ideas should emerge from the periphery and spread to the centre. The members will often collude creating a facade in the organization. Actually the closer the members get to the implementation of the and identification of the process the higher the uncertainty. It leads to the failure of ideas to diffuse and expand in the organization (Trahant, 2006).

Managers in human resource therefore, ought to be armed with qualities to both initiate and manage behavioral transformation in the organization. As Barret asserts, they have an important role to play especially where conflicts arise and acceptance of new values seem impossible. Managers therefore become both the agents of change and the experts in the consensus.  Otherwise mere understanding of the theories only will not be enough to create change in the organization (Barret, 2006).

The impact of Technology on social life

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The world has transformed at a great speed after the invention of computers. Technology has made the once large and almost impossible to travel across world a global village where people can share information at the click of a button. This has facilitated finalization of deals and online business deals from the comfort of ones office, home or country. Along with this technology have come a lot of other things like Facebook, Twitter, Badoo, MySpace and many more chat sites.

However, the use of internet to conduct business and check on friends has exposed yet another problem in the human race which needs to be dealt with immediately. Apart from the usual suspects of human trafficking and spread of sexual materials over the World Wide Web, social life will soon be a thing of the past. Internet availability at homes and offices as well as most transactions being carried online means that interactions have reduced tremendously. Nowadays children can even take their studies online meaning they will miss the aspect of growing up among other kids.

People have lost work because one computer can effectively carry out several peoples work. It only needs one person competent enough to handle it and the rest will be rendered jobless. And so many other things which affect the social life positively and negatively have happened due to technology

The issue of technology has been addressed again and again by different scholars, but its daily advancement leaves a room for further studies. I chose the topic because apart from bringing out the positive and the negative about technology, it will also be a forum to look at what can be done to avoid some of those problems. It always interests me to see great minds coming together on a very personalized form of media in the name of internet to share ideas. The internet has replaced tedious research, as well as what has come to be termed as ‘snow-mail’ nowadays. Governments have continued to face increase pressure to embrace technology and still keep their people at work. It is a challenge because with every technology that comes abroad, two or more people are replaced. This topic will therefore offer some information on how the governments can balance technology and the creation of jobs in their countries. It will also address the loopholes that have been brought about by the use of technology.

The fact that most people now own mobile phones and those cells have got internet validates the claim that technology is crosscutting. From children to the old, there is a common understanding of what technology is but a difference in understanding its use. The children and the youth might use it to download and play games, watch pornography, writing research papers and watching movies; the old will use the same internet to conduct businesses and catch up with their friends from distant places. For the purpose of this study, I will mostly target the young adults as they are the people who largely consume technology related services. They are in school or are working and as much as they do their homework and assignments respectively, they also engage in activities like blogging and social network sites.

I am one-hundred percent positive about the technological advancements we have witnessed in our globe at this era. I have come to like the way things have been simplified and some even done perfectly. The privacy which has come along sending emails and receiving documents from friends has made it easy to effectively handle and conduct businesses online. However, if the use of technology is not put under checks, many more vices are about to come up and spoil its otherwise good intended purpose. It’s a great medium which can be used in fighting crime, creating jobs as well as give news at the click of a button. I therefore maintain that as much as this technology is helping people in many ways, it should not just be made available without censoring sites which are regarded harmful by the society.

Preliminary thesis

The growth of technology is radically changing the way people interact in the world today. Currently many businesses have taken online with others retrenching their workforce as they move to embrace the newest technologies. It may be due to the ineffectiveness of the workers that they are fired; however, one computer that can serve many purposes has replaced over twenty very effective employees. Despite protests that technology has also a bad side by the humanitarian groups and individuals alike, its increasing accessibility and use is now a worry. It may create zombies out of the once interactive creatures known as human beings leading to an each man for himself society. At this point, those who will not have access to technology will be like aliens suffering in unfamiliar territories.

Argumentation and Genderlect

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Each gender has a particular style of speech with which they communicate their messages with. This is where genderlect style roots from. Genderlect is defined as the variety of speech pattern that a particular gender-male or female, uses to communicate (The Washington post  1994). Many factors influence our speech styles, including regional and ethnic backgrounds, family experience and individual personality. The differences in speech and communication patterns have caused miscommunications and sometimes conflicts as a result.

Argumentation on the other hand is the way in which logical reasoning should and is utilized to come to agreeable conclusions. Conclusions from argumentation are drawn largely from premises and rules or inference as well as those of logic are utilized. Debate, as well as negotiation is the key ingredients in an argument directed at coming to a mutually acceptable close. In some instances, as portrayed in eristic arguments; argumentation is used not for truth or finding any truth to a particular problem or discussion thus instead of coming to agreed upon conclusions, only one party goes home happy having won the argument.

Argumentation is a verbal activity as well as a non verbal activity. it usually takes place in a language that is understood by the audience. Argumentation is also a social activity in that it occurs within a social context. It is also an activity of reason in that people bring forth their arguments and they will be considered by the audience for a position in the realms of reason. An argument will always be related to a particular stand point which is why argumentation occurs to validate or to disprove that particular standpoint.

Argumentation has four main principles.

The first one is externalization which concentrates not on the psychological aspects of the audience but rather on the way they externalize things. This is because argumentation requires a standpoint and an opposition factor to the standpoint to be complete.

Socialization. Argumentation cannot occur when there is only one person involved. A social context is required for argumentation to occur. This is because arguments are a people driven expressive process. An arguer has to prove a point’s validity to another or a group.

Argumentation is a way of managing disagreements verbally. Thus the functionalization of arguments. If an argument does not lead to a resolution in the end then that argument may be deemed failed.

Dialectification. This is the procedure through which people depend on to win an argument. Argumentation is only helpful when you are able to use it to help you in the process of arguing for the sake of efficiency.

Argumentation, has five key components that it encompasses. One of them being the identification of the argument and the goals the participants wish to achieve by engaging in it. Further it is important to know the premises that are being used to argue out a conclusion. It is also important to know who bears the burden of proof and as such ascertain who is to bear the burden of providing the evidence to support what they are purporting and to give evidence why the position they hold is correct. The holder of a certain position is also required to be able to carry an argument in such a way that it will not be easily attacked and does not show any evidence of weakness. While the initiator of an argument carries the burden of proving it true, the listener‘s burden is to find cracks in it and try to bring it down. As such he will go on a fault finding mission to locate fallacies within the argument and prove that the argument cannot be used to derive a logical conclusion.

Typically any argument will have a structure that can be exploded and defined. It usually follows the following pattern. As a rule an argument has to have at least one premise and a conclusion. In between is a method of reasoning that is supposed to carry the argument from premise to conclusion.  Within thw confines of this definition, two schools of argumentation exist. One of them is classical logic where the conclusion automatically follows the assumptions or supporting information. But not all times does the assumption come out as inconsistent then it means that anything will come after. For the consequent to be inferred, then it is important to have a minimal set as with the set inclusions of the assumptions.  This is usually referred to as minimal consistent. The second considers argument a primitive term and as such an argument lacks any form of structure internally. This form of argumentation looks at abstract arguments.

Any argument that has the three parts indicated above will have components that make it a full argument (Toulmin 1958). For an argument to begin, there has to be a claim. No argument can commence without anything that requires verification and support. The second part will come in the form of data. This data should specifically be about the claim that has been made. The claim has to have foundation and the data provides just that. For the data to support the claim there has to be a warrant which bridges the two. The third part should be the backing. Backing is usually applied when the listener does not see the warrant as credible. It is usually supplied in the form of official provisions. The next component is a rebuttal which recognizes the restrictions up to which the claim is valid. This restricts the legitimacy of the claim. The qualifier is the last component. It is usually a word which denotes the extent of certainty in the claim that has been made. These include adverbs such as possibly, certainly, presumably and probably.

There are different kinds of argumentation. One of the most spread out is political argumentation. This form of argumentation is usually used by politicians who may be up for election for political office, government officials when defending government activities, media practitioners, academics and the public in general in the quest of understanding or commenting on political occurrences.

The second form of argumentation comes in the form of mathematical argumentation. Mathematics has for a long time been considered a truth and as such mathematical truths can be derived from entirely rational axioms and therefore are, in the end, logical truths. If an argument can be cast in the structure of sentences in representative Logic, it can be tested by the appliance of established confirmation methods. Although that may be so, an argument in Mathematics, as it is in any other field, can only be considered legitimate only if it can be proven as not having a true hypothesis and a fallacious conclusion. It should not contradict itself.

The next form of argumentation is scientific argumentation. Since argumentation is founded on foundationalism, scientific argumentation is regarded as a non form. This is because if the collective methods of verification of claims are deemed untrustworthy then there cannot be an argument. This is because scientific knowledge is produced rhetorically.

Legal arguments are carried out in a court of law by lawyers and are usually in front of a judge or jury or both but not the latter in singularity. They are usually done to convince of the guilt or innocence of the person being tried. They are usually done to prove why their point is of a greater magnitude and why their claim should prevail.


In genderlect the differences in how male and female communicate may bring about arguments. This is because of unavoidable differences in gender modes of communication which stem from culturally defined gender roles influence on language. Conversations are by and large negotiations through which we try to realize control and keep it-this applies to men while women opt to use this to enhance connection with other people. While communication happens

Tannen 1992 says that although boys and girls will grow up in the same family, cultural orientations on how they are supposed to behave differentiate their behavior as they grow up. There are various things that differentiate men and women in their communication. One of them is the main concern in communication. While men aim to gain the upper hand and be in control, women will strive to make connections and nurture them. This is seen in the interactions of boys and girls. Boys at play will challenge each other and jostle for positions of hierarchy within a group while girls will rarely play in large groups, preferring to play in small groups or pairs and competition for higher hierarchical position is not encouraged. (Tannen 1990) adds that girls are not accustomed to competing for position since they are more concerned with their likeability. This can be summarized as boys need to establish dominance while girls seek to preserve relationships in their conversations.

Girls will communicate in a way that establishes rapport, a way of founding and negotiating relations. For men conversation is used to preserve their sense of independence and establish or impose their dominance thus solidifying their place in the social hierarchy.

To affirm relationships, girls will share secrets, show concern by nodding and showing attention by looking into the eyes of their friends and talking back. This is done to re affirm their friendships. On the other hand, men will seldom talk about how they fell instead opting to talk about general interests like sports and politics. Emotions and secrets are internalized for boys and men. Showing and Sharing of emotions is considered weak and as such discouraged. Tannen , to explain this phenomena divided this into different areas of study.

On eof the areas she looked at involved conversation. Women have been known to speak freely and enjoy private conversations while men rarely engage in small talk. Men will speak freely in discussion groups and in public whereas women will not voice their opinions in public. This defines the difference in their styles of communication women prefer the rapport form will men report. These methods, as seen above are meant to reaffirm relationships for the women while for the menthe report style is used for getting attention, communicating the message and seeking agreement.

The differences are further displayed in the different sexes mode of telling stories.  A man will tell as story in a humorous way, setting himself on a pedestal as the hero of the story. Women on the other hand wish to share and relate with them. They will seek to gain acceptance by how they tell their story. They do not like to seek attention and as such will share the story in a way that disparages them.

When listening women will nod and talk back to show that they are listening and try to build a rapport. Men on the other hand will be quiet and listen. Men regard these interruptions as challenges to the social hierarchy while for the women, these disruptions and talk backs are a way of showing the speaker that they are interested in what they are saying. For women, a silent man during conversation shows that the man is not listening and lacks interest in what she is saying.

When it comes to questioning either gender does it for different reasons.  For women, questions are a way of showing that they are interested and to show agreement on the subject. Men on the other hand use questions to check how well the speaker knows on the subject they are speaking on. Further, men will seldom ask questions to get help and display dependence as this will move them lower the rung of social hierarchy but for women, they are comfortable asking questions and direction from people who have the information that will help them. This further cements the men’s need for independence and importance of position while showing how comfortable women are with lowering their status to gain information.

When it comes to conflict, men thrive in tit as it is the tool they use to climb up the social hierarchy, on the other hand women view conflict as a threat to their social connections and will do all that they can to avoid it.


Interactions, although differing in their modes are wards particular goals. For women it is connection while for the men it is status. It has been proven that the interactions between men and women are cross cultural due to the differences in communication differences. Status and connection are not the primary goals but they are within human beings and these define the journeys through life. For the women a lot of emphasis is placed on creating and maintaining connections and doing things in small groups, active listening and asking for help whenever they need it. For the men, they are defined by a sense of independence, maintaining status and competition define by conflict to go up the hierarchy. These attitudes are learned from childhood and carried into adulthood and for conflict between the sexes to be reduced, both genders need to understand their differences.

Population Behavior and Public Health

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Behavior plays a major role in determining the health of a person or a population. Unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles such as smoking, drinking and diet may provide a useful insight into rampant chronic disease development in a particular community. Moreover, human’s social nature may also influence their behavior into engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as unsafe sex and injections which may cause transmission of infectious diseases. The complexity of human behavior is attributed to some factors such as environmental and social factors and thus the populations need to be sensitized on the dangers of engaging in risk behaviors (Gostin & Fund, 2002).

Mass communication programs also play a role in inducing a shift of an individuals or public’s behavior from bad to worse. This can be through business promotions and advertisement of illicit drugs like tobacco and alcohol. This leads to uninformed decision making by many people thus engaging in unhealthy behavior. On the contrary, the media can play a role in promoting health behavior by limiting certain information in the industry and providing information that is conducive to the health of the public. Health-promotion activities are increasingly becoming important and in order to reach the grassroots, community participation needs to be encouraged (Gostin & Fund, 2002).

A change in human’s behavior attributed to their social environment could be the reason for patterned distribution of diseases in a population which is maintained even when an individual in the population changes. Therefore, according to the public health, it would be more appropriate to change the social environment than to change the population’s behavior one by one. Demographic factors such as race, religion, gender, marital status among others have also been found to influence health. Studies carried out in the United States show that married couples tend to be much healthier that the unmarried and women tend to live longer than their male counterparts (Schneider, 2010).

Likewise, the population should be encouraged to participate in activities that promote their health as seen in Californians who engage in community based disease prevention programs. They do this by engaging themselves in various activities such as community sidewalks, encouraging school athletic activities, availing fresh fruits and vegetables to communities where supermarkets are few or not there and implementing laws and policies that forbid smoking in public places. These programs have proved to be very effective as health within the community has greatly improved (Okey, 2011).

Theories and Models for health behavior

It is important for public health practitioners to understand the processes of program models and theories for intervention purposes. Human behavior theories and models aid in the development of health promotion efforts and positive behavior change.  Such models and theories include the following:

Health belief Model

It is a psychological model which acts as a point of reference to understanding a person’s change in behavior. Different individual actions vary and health belief mode attempts to predict the change in behavior of an individual when faced by a health problem. It does this by looking at some factors which include, the extent of vulnerability to the threat as perceived by the individual, the perceived severity of the illness, the perceived benefits of taking a preventive measure and the perceived barriers from taking preventive measures to reduce the risk (Health Behavior Theories, 2009).

Trans-theoretical model

It is a model which envisions behavioral change as a process involving five stages; the pre-contemplation stage where the individual has a problem and has no intention of changing it, the contemplation stage where the individual is aware of the dangers of the problem but has not yet taken action because of barriers to change, the preparation stage where the individual has made a decision to change and efforts of taking action are seen, the action stage where the individual has changed and is seen abstaining from bad behaviors such as smoking, and finally the  maintenance stage where the individual has successfully changed to a health behavior and must struggle to avoid recurrence (Schneider, 2010).

Social cognitive theory

It explains human behavior change as being affected by the environment, behavior and personal factors. Each or either of the other two factors may influence an individual’s behavior and suggests that, that behavior is largely regulated in the mind of the individual. Therefore, by forming expectations, an individual is able to predict the outcome of a behavior before it is performed. It is through these cognitive processes that an individual’s behavior is able to be predicted and changed (Health Behavior Theories, 2009).

Ecological model

This puts emphasis on the fact that the social, cultural and physical environment affects the way humans behave. Several factors that influence human behavior has been described by this model and they include; intrapersonal factors, interpersonal factors, institutional factors, community factors, group factors and public policy (Grizzel, 2007).

Theory of planned behavior

This theory is based on the basis that a person’s intention to perform a certain action determines their behavior. Personal attitude and personal social environment influence are two major factors that determine a person’s intention. This is compared to the concept of self-efficacy where the sense of one’s self confidence controls their behavior and this is seen as an aspect to change in behavior (Grizzel, 2007).

Learning theories

This theory stresses on gradually adapting to a new pattern of behavior and gradually abandoning previous sedentary lifestyle. In order to achieve this, an individual must have a goal; say engaging in physical activity every day by gradually increasing the time for exercise. This is repeatedly done each day until the target is reached and former behavior replaced or outcompeted. This theory normally has a reward in the end which motivates the individual (Grizzel, 2007).


It is essential to plan future health services, and in order to do this, preventive measures must be taken into consideration. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the present public health problems is a reflection of the past risk behaviors. In order to safeguard the future population, current behaviors must be rectified to fit into the required health standards as the future largely depends on the current exposures. In addition constant surveillance of population must be carried out to detect health changes and similarities and this can be done through population census, surveys and vital registration. Provision of environmental education and community rural appraisal programs to the population are equally important.

Health Effects of Factory Farming

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Agriculture in America is rapidly changing, advancing in technology and becoming more intensified in food production industrialization. This system of industrial agriculture has largely contributed to air pollution, water pollution and depletion of the top soil among many other forms of environmental destruction. All these consequences have occurred as a result of unsustainable consumption of non renewable resources such as fossil fuel, water and erosion of topsoil through industrial activities. Moreover, the system has raised human health concerns of workers and product consumers who are victims of degenerative diseases and pollution from highly concentrated animal waste (Horrigan, Lawrence and Walker). This paper seeks to examine how factory farming affects human and animal health and also the damages it causes to the environment.




 Farm animals are expressly taken as business commodities to be exploited for profit and when this is the case, animal welfare become least of the concerns. They are expected to produce to consumer satisfaction and to do this they are pushed to their biological limits for maximum production which renders them vulnerable to numerous diseases. These diseases are passed to humans when they consume these products, an example being the avian influenza passed from poultry. To top it up all, industrial farming poses great damage to the natural environment by using up non renewable resources to depletion and by polluting the ecosystem (farm sanctuary).

Consumption of plant food products is much healthier as compared to animal related products which have been associated to many diseases including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Chemicals such as hormones and drugs are used as a shorter route to realizing high production in egg, dairy, poultry and meat industries. Apparently, excessive use of these chemicals has resulted in antibiotic resistant pathogens which cause human illnesses and even death. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and avian influenza are fatal diseases that affect humans when they eat cows affected with “Mad Cow Disease” and poultry with “bird-flu” respectively (farm sanctuary).

Environmentally, many of the chemicals used in factory farming generate a lot of wastes which are highly harmful to the environment. Natural resources such as soil, ground water and fossil fuel, which take a long time to regenerate, are being depleted at a faster rate than it can replenish. Livestock are fed with grains instead of pasture which means that a lot of energy is used up by the animal during the conversion of grains eaten to meat. Extensive monocultures of grain feedlots used to supply diet in factory farms means more use of chemicals such as herbicides and insecticides which pollute ground water aquifers (Horrigan, Lawrence and Walker).

In addition, farm animals produce a considerably huge amount of waste which contaminates waterways with pfiesteria bacteria. This contamination results in fish kills and humans are inflicted with diseases such as nausea, memory loss, fatigue and open sores. Immense natural ecosystems such as forests and wetlands have been destroyed to pave way to intensive feedlots and animal rangeland. This wasteful exploitation of resources has disrupted the ecosystems natural balance of nature (farmsanctuary).


What happens in the farm?

Factory farm animals across the U.S. face unbearable cruelty as they are exploited for selfish gains. Egg laying hens are overcrowded with barely any space to move, they are kept in wired cages which expose them to extreme feather loss and bruises all over their bodies when they rub themselves against the wired-wall cages. Each hen is expected to lay over 250 eggs per day and this makes them vulnerable to fatty liver syndrome which occurs as a result of the hens liver being overworked to produce more fat and proteins for the egg yolk. In the end their bodies become too weak to pass another egg and are termed as spent hens. They are disposed off to slaughter houses or discarded as seen in the case of Ward Egg Ranch in California where they tossed live hens into a chipping machine (farmsanctuary).

Meanwhile, dairy cows are put under a demanding task of calving every year through artificial insemination. This condition exposes them to many diseases as mastitis and milk fever which occur due to abnormal milk production by the cows.  Immediately they are born, calves are separated from their mothers and those born male are used for veal as they are unproductive to the dairy industry. Veal calves are normally kept for eighteen weeks during which they are fed on iron and fiber deficient milk that makes them anemic. As a result, their meat becomes light in color and is expensively sold in the market as veal (farmsanctuary).

How did it start?

Animal product consumption has greatly increased in developing countries since 1950 and this is attributed to industrialization in agriculture. While this is seen a step forward by the developing nations who have not dietary increase in meat at all, it is actually a source of chronic diseases. Some of the developing nations like china have begun to adopt this pattern of dietary shift where the whole country and mostly the urban dwellers doubled meat consumption in 1990. China has also begun industrial agriculture, a practice dominant in western countries (Horrigan, Lawrence and Walker).

Farm industrialization has posed a threat to rural community livelihoods throughout the U.S. and they are working towards pollution prevention and protection of their health. The benefits of traditional agriculture over the negative effects of factory farming have been indicated by many studies. Traditional farming have been practiced thousands of year’s way before industrialization and showed no environmental damage. This is because the farmers did not produce more than the carrying capacity of the land as they understood the ability of the soil in sustaining diverse crops seasonally (farmsanctuary).

Who is affected?

Communities living around factory farms and factory workers are placed at risk of contracting contagious diseases which incubate in the factory’s facilities before they become transmissible to humans. Swine flu, an example of such contaminable diseases was first discovered in 1998 at a Smith field facility in Mexico. An industrial pig farm in North Carolina is another farm factory that has produced the recombinant strain of pig, bird and human that has plagued today’s world (farm sanctuary).


Though traditional farming is not as productive as factory farming, it is sustainable and friendly to public health and the environment. This system should be adopted in order to curb the increasing environmental damages and public health problems caused by factory farming. Human beings are supposed to be stewards of nature, but this is not so in the agribusiness industry where animals are seen as commodities and are subject to harsh treatments. This animal cruelty together with production of toxic wastes from factory farming calls for environmental and animal rights activists to come forth and address these concerns. Every living thing on earth whether forests, oceans or animal species has the right to exist because of the interconnectedness of nature. An individual can also make a difference by making a choice: adopting a meat free diet.