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The Eastern African Valley civilizations were not completely African being originated from the Semites of the Arabic nature. They are however not very recognized because much of their remains are present as in Egypt. They used mud bricks us building materials just us the Egyptians also did. Besides, they had Sabean influence and the Axum possessed a rich architecture while on the same note, they all had a Cushic influence like detailed calendars and foundations built on stones, (Adler, P. J. & Pouwels, R. L. 2008).
On the other hand, the western civilizations of Ghana, Mali and Songhai were the earliest in Africa. They were organized into kingdoms which came to be empires their region was also essential in that they were the first to engage in agricultural activities, thus becoming the first group to get to fashion alongside iron tools and weapons production they also make the first Africans to engage in significant politics and cultivate food crops even before the coming of Christianity. Adler, P. J. and Pouwels, R. L. (2008), further observes that the Ghanaians were peaceful and affluent following their mining and agricultural involvements. Along with Mali and Songhai, Ghana was stabilized because of agricultural advantage by the Niger River, trade involvement with Arabs from the north of Africa, salt mines from the Sahara as well as gold from Guinea forests, their armies were favored by the open Savannah and lastly the Islamism which helped them attain the best bases for learning and cultural development.
Racial and Ethnic Makeup of the Inhabitants
Most African slaves were based in the American mines and in plantations. They also were deemed fit for labor provision within the cities in the Americas and were put into varied occupational involvements in the urban areas. For the America slaves, the whites were accorded a better position in the social hierarchy both ethnically and in race. The African communities were enslaved, (Lewis, B. 1994). The divides were mostly on the basis of ethnicity derived along African origins and regionally. The Africans made up the majority and their cultural identity tended to survive enslavement, being dynamic unlike their counterpart’s. The main institutions evidenced are marriage and religion with religion standing out to breed resistance during the expansion of the Atlantic Slave Trade.
The Evolution of Colonial Slavery through the 18th Century
The success of the colonialists, especially the southern ones was dependent on the labor as provided by the slaves. Were it not for the slave labor then they would not have been as affluent as they are presently, (Adler, P. J. & Pouwels, R. L. 2008). They heavily relied on exploitation of the slaves by overworking them since they needed the slaves very much. This touched on a number of factors which included socio-cultural as well as geographical aspects.
The Africans were taken to unfamiliar places so that they could not escape but still, their understanding of the land made it possible for them to run off. The number of slaves grew and became of importance to their hosts’ economic growth, (Lewis, B. 1994). During the 18th century, African America slaves stayed in almost all the colonies of England’s North America and in fact there were approximately 650000 Africans who had been forced into North America before the Britain forbade its colonialists from taking part in the trade on slaves. Ghana formed the centre for trade of African slaves from where they were shipped while the Tropical America the overall slave trade centre.
It is in this century that the number of these slaves had been less by half that of the Native American slaves following colonial wars that resulted into enslavement and relocation of a number of slaves. The African slaves and their American counterparts shared common experiences as they lived together and thereby became lovers. They inter-married one another as they continued to relate and associate with one another and later yielded the present African Americans before complete end of slave trade in 1888 upon its abolishment by Britain in 1807.
The Different Approaches between the Northern and Southern Colonies
The circumstances that rule the colonies are characteristic of their respective colonialists and cannot be done away with in most cases. The northern and southern colonies had different approaches in the manner in which they formed settlements. Some of these settlements reemerged into either towns or even cities, (Michael, D. 1967). The southern colonies adopted the development of totally different locations as compared with the northern colonies.
Otherwise, these differences were influenced by a number of factors for example interrelationships with other communities, climatic aspects, socio-economic and political influences, and above all, slavery. But the major influence was nothing but the mindset as per th perceptions and assumptions held by the colonies in themselves. Following this, they separately developed varied behaviors, attitudes and even preferences according to their respective colonialists. The southern colonies developed a greater interest in the making of profits and adoption of agricultural initiatives as opposed to the northern colonies which was mainly aligned to religion, community, sturdy work ethic and family.
Forces For and Against Black Freedom in the 18th Century
The Britain’s efforts to end slavery were one of the critical forces that led to the freedom of the blacks from slavery all over the world. Furthermore, there were a number of people who were opposed to the system of slavery as they did view it as brutal and inhuman and they therefore responded to it with great opposition to the act. This contributed to the freedom of the black slaves as well. In addition to these, there were people in the community who following their compassion for the slaves, pleaded with those owning slaves to treat them with humanity. In fact in some instances they attempted to derive laws to help check on the act.
Michael, D. (1967), observes that in some cases, there were revolutions and rebellion from the slaves themselves, especially those from the neighboring regions who could have managed to be on runaways. Such rebellions were a force that assisted in the slaves getting their freedom as they would demonstrate the kinds of captivity which they had been exposed to therefore facilitating their owners to shy away from keeping them further and so freeing them.
The beliefs in some societies did otherwise prevent the blacks from attaining their freedom from slavery since there were societies that strongly believed that slaves had to be involved especially in the tasks. This did make such communities and their leaders in particular to keep treating them ruthlessly and with hostility.
Apart from economic needs leading purchasing of slaves and thereby leading to the legal acquisition of slavery, there were also aristocrats in the slave population. These greatly were against the freedom acquisition for the black slaves. In fact, in such a system there were cases where the slaves were absorbed into the military, thus not enabling them have the deserved freedom.