Romanticism was an artistic and literary movement in the years of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and it was a reaction to the industrial revolution. Romanticism dealt with visual arts, literature and music, though the main effect was on historiography and natural sciences (Nichols 304). It is the period, which displays plenty of style, and theme in English literature, although it has been attacked for the long period of time (Rene� 12). It has many disagreements because of its principles and aesthetics. Romanticism is defined as a great network with competing philosophies and points. By the end of the eighteenth century up to 1870, romanticism was at the top influence in Britain. In the US, it delayed up to 1830 going up to the American civil war. In the UK, romanticism was primarily on expression in poetry while the American was championing novel as their romanticism genre. Romanticism is applicable any period in literature and traces from Homeric epics up to the modern novels. Though the usage has been controversial, there are universal statements, which one can use to explain the nature of Romanticism in England and America (Zimmerman 85). Romanticism is applicable any time period in literature and traces from Homeric epics up to the modern novels. Though the usage has been controversial, there are universal statements which one can use to explain the nature of romanticism.
In reference to the philosophy and the works of three writers in the romanticism period, this paper gives a detailed research on the period.
He is an American novel and short story writer who was born in Massachusetts. Hawthorne was a close friend of great publishers such as James Thomas Fields (Madison, n.p). Hawthorne was characteristically negative in his points of view by resolving own satisfaction among elements of his stories. His literature work belongs to romanticism especially the dark romanticism and stories show that sin and evil duels are majorly inherent in humanity qualities (Wayne 140). Many of Hawthorne literature working centers were at the New England featuring the allegories of Puritan inspiration. He used the influence of Puritan which combines the historical romance combined with psychological themes and symbolism. His work depicts the past and the historical fiction was used as the sole route to express many ancestral vices such as sin and retribution. Hawthorne later work reflected the negative angle of transcendentalism movement (Spendora 24). He was majorly a short story writer during his younger ages. He published the Twice-Told Tales and expected a little public attention. The main romantic work he wrote in the eighteenth century was The Scarlet Letter, The Blitheadale Romance, Fanshawe, The house of Seven Gambles and the Mable Faun. He defined romance as different from a novel by not taken as a possible cause or an ordinary experience. He defines romantic writing by use an atmospheric medium to bring out the lights and improve the picture�s shadows. Historians and feminists recently values Hawthorne�s work in depictions of the women like the figures of potential transformations. The scholars are interested in Stalwart Prynne by her own words ��Destined prophetess���..and the apostle of new revelation��. Paglia viewed Hester as a wandering goddess who bore the scar of Asian natives. Apart from Prynne�s argument there are several women cynosures in the Hawthorne�s literature work such as Ellen Langton of Fanshawe and Hilda in the Mable Faum who appear more protagonists than their male counterpart characters who were orbit (Spendora 14).Some of his work have been selected by the American library.The Marble Faum casts four characters who deploys the plot of innocence and cultural degradation experience while the The Scarlet Letter tells of a Salem prison in the New England then proceeds to end into a burial place in the same place (Nichols 311).
Criticism of Hawthorne
Hawthorne�s work being majorly based on black romanticism (Reynolds, n.p) and he received several criticisms of his literature work on the Romantics. Edgar Poe wrote negative reviews on Hawthorne�s work such as in Twice-Told Tale. The negative review was mainly because of contempt and moral tales, and the accusations of plagiarism (Nichols 315). The Hawthorne�s writing style was pure and had a singular tone that was effective and plaintive and fully in line with all his themes. Harold Bloom though he gives praise to Hawthorne argues that Henry James is the best American novelist of all time. Response to his work, praised his moral purity, but the modern focus on complex dark psychology. From the years of 1950�s, critics were begging to focus on didacticism and also symbolism (Rene� 20).
Shelley Percy Bysshe
Shelley is one of the greatest English romantic poets. His poetry was radical both in political and social fields. He did not boast in his life, but his poetry was highly recognized after his death. Shelley is best known for his poems such as Ozymandias, Masque of Anarchy, queen Mab, Alastor among several others. Shelley had a controversial life which was along with a voice of disapproving. Shelley employed joy and brood despair in his romanticism work while employing major themes which were inspiring and lasting. He created powerful symbols in the view of the ideal, but was also tempered by skeptics which took him to the risk of being despised and was one time confronted of censuring by his own poem. He became a role model of the next generation poets like Robert Browning, Jibananada Das among others. He wrote on the several themes such as nonviolence, vegetarianism, social justice and legacy. He had a great work on the issue of nonviolence like in Masque of Anarchy, which Gandhi often quoted as one of the modern ideas of nonviolence resistance. In addition, Shelley did some work on the topic of vegetarianism that are key in a Vindication of Natural Diet and also in on the vegetable system of diet (Timothy 52-53). He dedicated sentient beings in his work by arguing that the human beings doing slavery and barbaric actions of mutilating bodies of birds or animals. Shelley advocated a strong social justice. He fought for the lives of animals barring slaughtering and domestication of animals that he encountered being treated unfairly. Shelley was only appreciated by the Victorian poets, the socialists and labor movement, the reason being the discomfort with his political radicalism, some like popular anthologists confined his reputation to be sanitized. On the political side, Shelley�s literature contribution may have directly or indirectly involved in the Manchester Massacre of the year 1819 (Timothy 60).
Critics like Mathew Arnold said Shelley was a lyrist and dilettante with no intellectual position, and his poems were long and worthy study less. Arnold also described Shelley as ineffectual angel thus contrasting the previous judgment which knew Shelley as radical. Many Shelley�s literature works was not published and was less known after his demise with many pieces of work existing as just manuscript up to early twentieth century. Paul Foot documented the crucial role of Shelley�s literature worked like in Queen Mab to have played a major role in the English radicalism. Despite Shelley�s work being banned many of his writings were rooted by some people of whom some were jailed for printing these publications (Timothy 63).
Edgar Allan Poe
Poe is an American writer who is well known for his work in poetry with tales such as macabre and mystery. Poe played a critical role in romanticism in the US and America in general. He was one of the early short story writers in the United States. In different literature works, Poe used his own methodology in many works with the major themes being the death and loss. His great contribution to the development of literature is gained from analytical techniques he used as a creative writer and criticism of his contemporaries. Being a main mobilizer of aesthesis, he emphasized on formal literature and self-declaration to formulate artistic ideas concerned with the value of literature (Ashton 315). His work had many bizarre characters who drew public attention and many thought of him being negative. In addition, Poe is referred to as the father of modern short story since he had a high rationale in short stories, poetry and fiction. In contrary to other critics of the time, Poe majored his criticism which contributed to either success or failure of the work. Moreover, Poe�s work in literature demonstrated a command of technique inspired by original imagination and hence his work remains of great importance due to his arts and philosophical acts. He popularly considered as the one who invented the detective fiction and also credited for his contribution to the introduction of science genre. Poe is first recognized American, who tried to earn his earning via writing alone and lack of copyright law hindered his worker (Madison 72). Publishers in the United States pirated work from the British instead of getting the work of their fellow Americans. Despite the American growth, publishers did pay the writers their dues or even delayed their payment, thus making many writers live uncomfortable lives. Poe published several, poems, critiques, stories and book reviews. Publications such as the narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket in the year 1838 was one of his numerous works in poetry. Gothic are one of most popular Poe�s works that appeased the public perspective. He had many repeating themes such as reanimation of the dead, premature burial and several others. Many of Poe�s literature works are considered to be of dark romanticism. He used irony and extravagance to enhance comic effect, hence liberating the readers from conformity. Poe�s work reflected some literary theories, presenting his criticism and essays like The Poetic Principle. Poe hated allegory and didacticism, but he believed that literature means to be under the surface. Poe believed work quality should be brief and straight to the point of calculating every single idea.
Criticism and literary influence of Poe
During his days, Poe was well known as a literary critic with his mate Russell refers him as one of most discriminating and fearless critic who was ever philosophical in his imaginative literature work written in the American soil. One Poe�s criticism target was Henry Wadsworth, who defended his literary work in the later popularly known Longfellow war accusations of plagiarized work. Apart from praise Poe also received criticism that was because of his negative perception of his character and reputation. William Yeats often regarded Poe as a vulgar. The reputations of Poe earned him the name tomahawk (Zimmerman 85-87).
To sum up, romanticism has not completely disappeared. Sensibly romanticism has been phased out by some aesthetic paradigms such as modernism but has sill remained. Romanticism is echoed by many novelists and poets of the twentieth century as one of great inspiration. The major cause of romanticism falling down was because many poets and novelists wanted to express their ideas in a more immediate style. Many Romanticism writers were commonly referred as innovators but some of them lost in their own imaginations. The world�s real life situations were set aside, as the metamorphosis of modernization went on demand for an early type of literature came thus romantic writers could not fit in these shoes. In addition, this period is more on individualism rather than the society. Individual imagination takes the center stage, especially for romantics. In order to attract individual�s potential creativity, melancholy and altered states were majorly used in romantic poems (Morton 56). Coincidentally, power of reason and lowering of importance was a reaction barring the thinking enlightenment. Authors were more concerned of social issues as the period progressed. According to (Virgil, n.p) the period of 1815 to 1848 was the period of domesticating romanticism. Furthermore, romanticism emphasizes benefits of individual experience by world�s interpretation. The era of Romanticism took people back to focusing supernal nature and human experience with the concepts that are important to nature the person�s soul as different from the effects of industrialization and technology. Romanticism diverted from the church, science and tradition influence, then emphasized on the importance of personal experience with some major aspects such as; the love of nature overcoming the need of technology and an argument that poetry surpasses science in terms of superiority.
The order number of this work is 81538345 .Since i am not the one who wrote this paper it will be difficult for me to complete the work.I would appreciate it if the writer can take his or her time to bring out a good outline; this outline should have a good introduction, thesis from the essay and good supporting points all from the essay. i would also want an appendix page too.the appendix should either be a chart,picture or graph followed by a little explanation any of these should tie with the essay above ,label each item using alphabets,describe what it represents, .The last thing will be good research questions and answers page too ,the questions should come from the above essay maybe like 6 questions and their answers.If there is any question i will be glad to answer .a title page please.Thanks you