Chapter Three: Research Method Virtual ethnography

What is the work ?
• Chapter 3 should be fully referenced, preferably using the Harvard style, e.g. (Hall, 1992: 120). Referencing. Harvard University style. If you are referring to a theorist’s work and not quoting (Surname date: page). If you are quoting, (Surname date: page). If you are referring to a website (Source of website date). In the bibliography (which should be alphabetised) it is Surname, Initial. (date) Title. Place: Publisher for books and Source date available from: URL [accessed on date].

Research Project Title:
SOCIAL MOVEMENT IN DIGITAL SPACE: How Twitter Gives Individuals in Egypt the Social Power to Mobilise, Organise, Share Ideas and News during the Arab Spring
Research Question:
What is the importance of Twitter in Arab Spring countries, what is the concept of social movement, and what are the factors of this social movement in Arab Spring countries? These concerns lead us to the following research question: How did the youth used Twitter for social mobilisation and political change in Arab world (Egypt)?
Research Aims and Objectives:
The development of social media and its use as a political tool is an important topic in various Arab and Western research institutions, as well as one of the most important non-academic topics in the Arab region. This project aims: To investigate how youth in the Arab world (Egypt) used social media (Twitter) to mobilise themselves to influence political change in Egypt

3. Chapter Three: Research Method
Some points:
• Ethnography is defined as describing a community in an attempt to answer questions about the lives of the group or individuals in it, thereby connecting culture and human behaviour over a certain period of time (Hine 2000: 73 ). Ethnography focuses on the knowledge of details concerning the realities of the social life of a group through a small number of cases studied by the researcher while living in the community. In addition, by observing members in the natural state of their lives, and thereby learning about their ideas, beliefs, values and behaviours, ethnography is also a tool for understanding the everyday life in a community (Hine 2000: 69).
• Virtual ethnography is a new research method for studying the use of social media communications such as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and other platforms.
• advantages include the absence of prior assumptions, dependence on direct online observations of the researcher, the ability to use a single case in the community or group under investigation, the use of the subjects’ natural environment in which to communicate, and that it provides a more accurate and in-depth analysis (Hine 2000; Bertrand and Hughes 2005).
• Nonetheless, there are some disadvantages to the ethnographic method. It requires time and effort to understand the subjects’ characteristics, such as language, customs, traditions and religion. Background research may not be sufficient to allow a researcher to participate in some activities and practices.
• An additional challenge in online observation is that the researcher must maintain objectivity and try not to support any ideas or opinions about the research, in this case, by focusing on specific Twitter accounts that might support certain ideas or opinions (Denzin and Lincoln 1998).

Chapter 3 Contents:
3.0 introduction
3.1 Research (Virtual Ethnographic Research)
Why I chose this methodology for my research
Why I need it, why it is suitable for my research
Strength and weakness
Time study in Twitter from December 2010 to December 2012
Best way to answer to justify
Virtual Ethnographic Research (Online Observation)
3.2 Research Strategy
3.3 Research Design
3.4 Theoretical Approach, Anthropological approach
3.5 Data Collection
3.6 Ethical Concern
3.7 Limitation
3.8 conclusion

You have to use this Sources including also your additional sources:
Bertot, J., Jaeger, P., and Grimes, M. (2013) ‘Using ICTs to Create a Culture of Transparency: E-government and Social Media as Openness and Anti-corruption Tools for Societies’. Government Information Quarterly 27 (3).
Bertrand, I. and Hughes, P. (2005) Media Research Methods. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. (1998) Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. (2005) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Fielding, N., Lee, R. and Blank, G. (2008). The SAGE Hand Book of Online Research Methods. 1st ed. London., (2015) [online] available from <>, Ethnographic research [25 Feb. 2015].
Gunter, B. (2000) Media Research Methods. London: SAGE Publication Ltd.
Hine, C. (2000) Virtual Ethnography. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Lovejoy, K., Waters, D., and Saxton, G. (2012) ‘Strategically Managing International Communication in the 21st Century, Engaging Stakeholders Through Twitter: How Non-profit Organizations are Getting More out of 140 Characters or Less’, Public Relations Review 2.
Schulte, B. (2009) ‘How News Organizations are Intensifying Their Use of Social Networking Venues Like Twitter and Facebook to Circulate Their Stories and Connect with Their Communities’. American Journalism Review 6.
Twitter International Company (n. d.) about company [online] available from <> [20 February 2015]