Coursework 1: a 2,000-word exercise. More than 2,000-word will be penalised.
In International Law, a distinction is made between human trafficking, involving the ‘exploitation for forced labour, sexual exploitation or other forms of exploitation’ and the smuggling of migrants which connotes ‘procurement, for financial or material gain, of the illegal entry into a country of which that individual is neither a citizen nor permanent resident’. However, this distinction is being increasingly challenged in the scholarly literature.
You should write a short academic essay in response to the question: Is there a distinction between human trafficking and the smuggling of migrants? Your analysis should be a sustained reflection on the key elements of this scholarly debate drawing extensively on the academic literature, evaluating the detractions, merits and implications of the respective divergent arguments.
As well as undertaking your own research, you should read and refer to the recommended and suggested reading outlined in the worksheets for Workshops One & Two


The United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Woman and Children, Supplementing United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2000). (The Palermo Protocol).
EU Framework Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims (5 April 2011).
ICAT (Inter-Agency Coordination Group against Trafficking in Persons) The International Legal Frameworks concerning Trafficking in Persons (2012).
ILO Convention No 29 on Forced Labour 1930 (in force 1 May 1932).
UNODC Issue Paper The Role of ‘Consent’ in the Trafficking in Persons Protocol (2014).