technology history

1. In 1897 it had been estimated that there were 300,000 bicycles in France, and taxation records put that number at 375,000 in 1898; however, by 1914 the number of bicycles in France was estimated to be
2. One bicycle enthusiast was quoted as saying that he could find only two reasons now “to refuse to taste velosipedic delights” — which he identified as _______________________ & ______________________.
3. In the mid 1890’s autos produced by Peugeot and others were strictly for the wealthy. One owner paid 1,500 francs a year (a workingman’s typical annual income) for what? ______________________________.
4. After an accident had killed a driver participating in the Paris- Madrid road race of 1903, the government of France prohibited road races characterizing them as too (what?) ____________________________-
5. The author notes that the Tour de France carried with it modernity, revealed more of France to the French, if only on the maps on which so many followed its progress. The next time the French focused on their maps would be said to be when? _________________________________________________________.
6. Founded in 1885, this organization’s statutes proclaimed intentions “both patriotic and scientific, since it favors the study of our country and since, at the opportune moment, excellent guides for our armies might be recruited from its ranks. This organizations title was the Societe des ________________________________________________________.
7. One factor mitigating the enthusiasm in France for physical education was that its exertions would encourage/require a need for washing/bathing. One reason cited for the merger between the Bordeaux University Club and the Stade Bordelais was that the latter possessed what? _______________________________ & _________________________________.
8. The author notes that without recourse to this sporting practice upon which military discipline relied heavily, and not just for officers who could be cashiered for refusing a challenge , but, as well, for enlisted men who were forced to this recourse if caught brawling — “discipline and dignity would be impossible to maintain”, declared an army Captain. Without recourse to what? ________________________________________.
9. One testimonial cited in the text had described how the practice of football and cross-country running had taught him and his friends the competitive nature of life, persuaded him that men were unequal, and turned them away from socialism with its false ideas of equality, fraternity and pacifism. “Sport enlightened me on myself and on my real feelings.” What famous America was noted to have preached the value of sport as a source of energy and as a way of channeling excess energy into socially acceptable directions? _________________________________________________________.
10. England had been first in acceptance of the competitive principle in economic life, in the recruitment of bureaucracy; and the idealize it in sport, ennobling competition by equating it, the victories it produced, with chivalric notions of sportsmanship and fair play, turning this into social convention. However, Coubertin and his friends sought, instead, to promote an image that in sport “it is less important to win than to take part.” An ideal carried in the quotation ” for when the One Great Scorer comes to mark against your name, He writes — not that you won or lost — but how you played the game”. A quotation from whom?


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