Pavlov’s Studies

Little Phil, who received a shot from the nurse the last time he was at the clinic, begins to cry when the

nurse walks out and calls his name. Provide a rationale for his behavior based on classical

conditioning principles. Answer: The nurse gave Phil his last shot (on unconditioned stimulus) which
automatically caused him pain and distress (an unconditioned response). Phil now associates that

pain with the nurse (a conditioned stimulus) and begins to cry when he sees her (a conditioned