# Levels of Measurement Exercise

Levels of Measurement Exercise
Name:
For each of the listed variables, determine the level of measurement by placing an “X” in the appropriate column.

Variable Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio
Numbers on hockey players’ jerseys
Social Security Numbers
Order of finishers in the Boston Marathon
SAT scores
Scores on a statistics quiz
Temperature in degrees Celsius
Duration of statistics classes
Number of students who are tired in each class
Ages of automobiles
Ages of Americans (Careful!)
U.S. News rankings of the colleges
Speed of trucks on Interstate 95
Attitude toward gun control (favor, neutral, oppose)
Number of children in a family (0, 1, 2, etc.)
Marital status (never married, married, separated, divorced, widowed)
Height (in whole inches)
The number of stars in the skies
Gender
The distance from the north wall to the south wall in this classroom
Your attitude concerning Barack Obama’s effectiveness as President (measured as follows: very effective, effective, very ineffective)
The length of time you can stand on one foot

Cross-Tabulation Tables (in percent)

Table A
Does the percentage of students who are the first in their family to pursue a master’s degree vary by program?

First in family to pursue master’s degree
Yes No Total
Large MPA program 39 61 100
Small MPA program 18 82 100
Online MPA program 50 50 100
Total (n=317) 39 61 100

Note: Strength of relationship: Cramer’s V = .220

Table B
Does the percentage of men and women vary based on the program?

Men Women Total
Large MPA program 43 57 100
Small MPA program 46 54 100
Online MPA program 36 64 100
Total (n=317) 45 55 100

Note: Strength of relationship: Cramer’s V = .10
Table C
Do programs vary in terms of percentage of students who receive support from employer?

Employer pays cost
All costs Some costs No costs Total
Large MPA program 9 23 68 100
Small MPA program 2 4 95 100
Online MPA program 30 27 43 100
Total (n=317) 100

Note: Strength of relationship: Cramer’s V = .45

Table D
Do the programs differ in terms of student employment?

Not employed Private sector Public sector, not military Military Nonprofit Total
Large MPA program 10 8 50 19 13 100
Small MPA program 46 4 27 2 22 100
Online MPA program 10 5 36 46 3 100
Total (n=317) 16 6 42 24 12 100

Note:Measure of association: Cramer’s V = .52

Table E
Does recommendation of program vary?

Extent of recommendation of program to others
Strongly recommended Generally Possibly Generally not Strongly not recommended Total
Large MPA program 26 35 26 8 5 100
Small MPA program 16 65 15 4 0 100
Online MPA program 40 50 10 0 0 100
Total (n=317) 30 45 18 5 2 100

Note:Measure of association: Cramer’s V = .29

Table F
Does class size affect recommendation of program?
Extent of recommendation of program to others
Strongly recommended Generally Possibly Generally not Strongly not recommended Total
Small class (<20) 27 61 10 3 9 100
Medium class (21-30) 34 42 19 3 2 100
Large class ((31 or more) 23 38 25 8 6 100
Total (n=317) 28 45 19 5 3 100

Note:Measure of association: Tau c = .157

Table G
Is the amount of individual attention associated with extent of recommendation?

Strongly recommended Generally Possibly Generally not Strongly not recommended Total
Very satisfied 56 35 8 1 0 100
Generally satisfied 30 60 12 7 0 100
Neither 3 68 20 11 0 100
Generally dissatisfied 5 16 51 19 8 100
Very dissatisfied 0 0 60 10 30 100
Total (n=317) 28 45 19 5 3 100

Note:Measure of association: Tau c = .46