Hypoxia and Dead Zones In European Seas.

Hypoxia and Dead Zones in EuropeanSeas: Legislation, Policies and Measures for the Protection and Recovery of our Marine Ecosystems.
Subject: International Marine Environmental Law, EuropeanEnvironmental Law, Eutrophication, Hypoxia.
Statement of the problem:
Hypoxic zones can occur naturally, but scientists report thathypoxiceventsaround the world havebeenesponentiallyincreasingsince the mid 1960s

created or enhanced by human activity (anthropogenic). Anthropogenicnutrientloading from sourcessuchasagriculture, fossilfuelemissions, and

climateeventsisbelieved to be related to the global increase in frequency, size, and duration of certainalgalblooms. Excess nutrients that run off

land or are piped as wastewater into rivers and coasts can stimulate an overgrowth of algae, which then sinks and decomposes in the water. The

decomposition process consumes oxygen and depletes the supply available to healthy marine life. Hypoxic zones are areas in the ocean of such low

oxygen concentration that animal life suffocates and diesor, if they are mobile such as fish, leave the area.Marine habitats that would normally be

teeming with life become, essentially, biological deserts without life “Dead Zones”.“Many ecosystems are now severely stressed by hypoxia that may

be near of change or collapse (loss of fisheries, loss of biodiversity, alteration of food webs)” (R. Diaz).Some recorded dead zones in Europe are

the Baltic Sea, the Kattegat Strait, the Black Sea and the northern Adriatic Sea.

Project description:
to investigate the responce of Europeancountries to natural and human inducedchanges in Europeansea water quality. Thiscontributiondemonstrateswhich

are the mostefficienttools in Hypoxia control.

Format:I intend to structure my thesis as a series of chapters and paragraphs.
Itwill be first introducedthosefindings(from otherdisciplines: biology, ecology etc.)necessaryto explain the Hypoxiaphenomenon featuresand a

detailedanalysis of causes and effectsuseful to understand in a second moment the field of intervention. Ex. fertilizers →nutrient control measures
Hypoxiaprocess • what are AquaticDead Zones? •Causesof Hypoxia• Effects on the marine ecosystems •Effects on Biodiversity• Impact on Fisheries

• Irreversibility • Hypoxia and Invasive Species •Aquaculture ?

CHAPTER 2: Hypoxia and Dead Zones in Northern Europe coastalwaters.
The Chapterdeals with the mostimportantcases : The Baltic Sea and Helcom •CelticSeas •Wadden Sea • KattegatStrait
For each one will be describedLegislation, Countermeasures and Strategiesadopted by single States or in cooperation and treaties to manage and

control Hypoxia and Dead Zones,
Chapter 3: HypoxicCoastalAreas in Central and Eastern Europe.
Cases description, Legislation, Countermeasures, Policies:The Black Sea case •Mediterranean Sea •Bay of Biscay

CHAPTER 4: InternationalEnvironmentalLaw
Environmentalprotocols • Precautionarypriciple.• the OSPAR EutrophicationStrategy •UNCLOS and UN WatercourcesConventions • Large Marine

Ecosystemsconcept (LMEs) • The role of UNEP • Acceptance of EnvironmentalsLaws • International Cooperation • The role of

ImplementingagenciessuchasUnep, Word Bank etc.
CHAPTER 5: – Hypoxia and Eu Policy and legislation
EU hasbeentaking steps to fighthypoxia fixing parameters to evaluate water quality and for the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorousloads in the

environment, notablythrough the adoption of severalcrucialpieces of legislation: The Nitrates Directive (1991) • The Urban Waste-Water Treatment

Directive (1991) • The Water Framework Directive (2000) • Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008) • Eu legislation on Invasive Species

(only for the part pertinent to the subject) •others.

CHAPTER 6:Climatechange and Hypoxia in EuropeanSeas:
Climatechangetends to exacerbatehypoxiabecauseitalters the sea water chemistry. Hypoxiczones are projected to expand in the future.
Some of the issues the chapterdeals with are: Ocean Acidification•ClimateChangeadaptationmeasures • ClimatechangeGovernance • International and

EuropeanClimateChange law • Governmentsobligationstowards future generations • Need for the international community to set a single upperlimit

for the atmosphericconcentration of CO2 to match bothclimatechange and oceanacidificationmitigationgoals • Climatechangedenial and

CHAPTER 7: Conclusions.
In thischapterwill be described, explained and resumed the elements to be consideredwhen planning of a successful control policy andrecovery

State jurisdiction• Stakeholdersidentification •Regionalcoordination • Co-operationbetweenStates • The role of environmentalNGOs • Enhancing

public information and participation •Liability and Compensation for pollution, Sanctionmechanisms •Economicinstruments and

financialadministration of the project; Investment promotion • Politicalissues management. • Development of systems for monitoring, information

management and research • Technicaladvisors; technicaladvisory •

Significance/Contribution to the Discipline: Providing a detailedoverview, gathering information fragmented reports, articles, legislative

documentsin an uniquedissertationupdated to the mostrecent data, takinginto account that the major part of papers date back to the first years of

the new millenium (2001, 2002)???Describing the legislationevolution on the subject and howisevolving.
PossibleOutcomes – Comparisonsbetween the legislationmodels of the differentEuropeancountries.

ResearchMethodology:the dissertation focus on a review of the mostrelevantliterature based on library and computer research with a qualitative

Will be examined the jurisprudence, case law and judgements of Courts and tribunals (for ex. ICJ and ECJ) and reportedevery time consideredpertinent

to the topic.

References: Thisproposalrequired the consultation of a significantnumber of sources, for spacereasonsitisnotpossible to list themall. However, the

bibliographyisavailableany time on request.