How are radioactive isotopes useful in tracing atoms through metabolic processes?


  1. Define:  element, compound, atom
  2. Name the elements that make up about 96% of living cells
  3. What is a trace element?
  4. Make a list of trace elements.
  5. Define atomic number and atomic mass number
  6. List the differences between the 3 sub atomic particles ; protons, electrons and neutrons.
  7. Find the number of protons, electrons and neutrons for the following elements
  1. 168O, 146C, 2211Na, 3918Ar
  1. A certain atom  has 11 protons,  12 neutrons and 11 electrons.  Calculate its atomic number and atomic mass number.
  2. Define isotopes.
  3. How  are radioactive isotopes useful in tracing atoms through metabolic processes?
  4. What are electron shells?
  5. What are valence electrons.
  6. What determines the chemical behavior of  atoms?
  7. Draw the electron distribution and determine the number of valence electrons for
  1. 146C,   b) 2211Na,   c)11 H,   d) 3517Cl
  1. Why are elements like Helium, neon and Argon chemically inert?
  2. What is a covalent bond?
  3. Explain the difference between a polar covalent bond and a non-polar covalent bond. Give examples of each.
  4. What is an ionic bond? Explain how NaCl molecule is formed by ionic bonding.
  5. Differentiate between covalent and ionic bonds.
  6. Explain hydrogen bonding using water molecule as your example.
  7. What are Van Der Waals forces?
  8. Define: reactants, products and chemical equilibrium.

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