· Introduction – could be better … include proper references for each of the topics included;
· Lit review – the topics should be introduced broader including proper references for each of them;
· Research work – use more of the SPC tool we have discussed during our classes, use Fishbone to search for the causes;
· Discussion – has to be rewritten, as it is now is rather presentation and analysis of the results; you have to discuss your results in the light
of other results found by other authors;
· Recommendations are missing Conclusion – short overview of the whole project.
Mark all new text in a different colour.
Deadline to send the revised version by email to me and to upload it to the Turnitin system is Tuesday, 6 pm.
The introduction leads the reader from a general subject area to a particular field of research. It establishes the context and significance of the
research being conducted by summarizing current understanding and background information about the topic, stating the purpose of the work in the
form of the research problem supported by a hypothesis or a set of questions, briefly explaining the methodological approach used to examine the
research problem, highlighting the potential outcomes your study can reveal, and outlining the remaining structure of the paper.
A well-written introduction is important because, quite simply, you never get a second chance to make a good first impression. The opening
paragraphs of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions about the logic of your argument, your writing style, the overall
quality of your research, and, ultimately, the validity of your findings and conclusions. A vague, disorganized, or error-filled introduction will
create a negative impression, whereas, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will lead your readers to think highly of your analytical
skills, your writing style, and your research approach.
A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so
doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated. Literature
reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to your readers how
your research fits within a larger field of study.
A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational
pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories.
A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a
way that informs how you are planning to investigate a research problem. The analytical features of a literature review might:
• Give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations,
• Trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates,
• Depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant research, or
• Usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date.
The purpose of a literature review is to:
• Place each work in the context of its contribution to understanding the research problem being studied.
• Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration.
• Identify new ways to interpret prior research.
• Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature.
• Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies.
• Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort.
• Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research.
• Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important].
The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research
problem being investigated, and to explain any new understanding or fresh insights about the problem after you’ve taken the findings into
consideration. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature
you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the
reader’s understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction.
This section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you:
Most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based upon
a logical synthesis of the findings, and to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem under investigation.
Present the underlying meaning of your research, note possible implications in other areas of study, and explore possible improvements that can be
made in order to further develop the concerns of your research.
Highlight the importance of your study and how it may be able to contribute to and/or fill existing gaps in the field. If appropriate, the
discussion section is also where you state how the findings from your study revealed new gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed
or adequately described.
Engage the reader in thinking critically about issues based upon an evidence-based interpretation of findings; it is not governed strictly by
objective reporting of information.
The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A
conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem but a synthesis of key points and, if
applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research. For most essays, one well-developed paragraph is sufficient for a conclusion,
although in some cases, a two or three paragraph conclusion may be required.
Importance of a Good Conclusion
A well-written conclusion provides you with important opportunities to demonstrate to the reader your overall understanding of the research problem.
Presenting the last word on the issues you raised in your paper. Just as the introduction gives a first impression to your reader, the conclusion
offers a chance to leave a lasting impression. Do this, for example, by highlighting key points in your analysis or results or by noting important
or unexpected implications applied to practice.
Summarizing your thoughts and conveying the larger significance of your study. The conclusion is an opportunity to succinctly answer the “So What?”
question by placing the study within the context of past research about the topic you’ve investigated.
Demonstrating the importance of your ideas. Don’t be shy. The conclusion offers you the opportunity to elaborate on the impact of your findings.
Introducing possible new or expanded ways of thinking about the research problem. This does not refer to introducing new information [which should
be avoided], but to offer new insight and creative approaches for framing/contextualizing the research problem based on the results of your study.