body system

 

body system
Muscular System
Describe a neuromuscular junction. In your description include: (see page 196-197)
A. Which cell releases the neurotransmitter?
Which part of the cell releases the neurotransmitter?
B. What is the neurotransmitter released at a neuromuscular junction?
C. Which cell receives the neurotransmitter?
Which part of this cell receives the neurotransmitter?

Describe the process of muscle contraction. In your description include the role of the following substances: (see pages 189, 196, and 197)
Actin
Myosin
Calcium
Tropomyosin
Troponin

Fill in the following table, an example has been provided: (see tables on page 200)
Muscle Name
Joint and movement
AntagonistPectoralis major
Shoulder flexion
DeltoidDeltoid
Shoulder extension
Pectoralis majorBiceps Brachii Brachialis

TicepsBrachii

Flexor Carpi Radiolis, Flexor Capri Ulnaris

Extensor Carpi Radialis

Flexor digitorumprofundus

Extensor digitorum

Iliopsoas

Gluteus maximus

Hamstring group- Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, and Semitendinosus

Quadriceps group- Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus medialis, and Vastus intermedius

Tibialis anterior

Gastrocnemius

Soleus

Flexor digitorum longus

Exxtensordigitorum longus

(see tables on page 200)

 

Differentiate skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles.Include the following information for each muscle type (p. 186; p. 192-194):
Is the muscle under voluntary or involuntary control?
What is the function of the muscle?
C. Describe the cellular characteristics (striated, non-striated, multinucleated, one nucleus, etc.)
Include an example of each muscle type.

Nervous and Sensory Systems

Name the parts of a neuron. Note: please make sure to label the images on the page. (p.147) Please review:
State the function and location of the myelin sheath. (p. 147) Please review:

List the different kinds of glial cells and describe the function of each (p. 149). Please review: State the function and location of the following brain

regions:
Pons (p. 149)
Cerebellum (p. 155)

Cerebrum (p. 156)

Medulla oblongata (p. 155)

 

Thalamus (p. 155)

Hypothalamus (p. 155)

What are the parts of the spinal cord and how do they relate to afferent and efferent information flow in the nervous system? Note: please make sure to

label the images on page 158. (p. 157-158)
8. Identify and state the function of dorsal and ventral parts of the spinal cord. (p. 163)
What is cerebrospinal fluid and where is it located? Where does it come from?(p. 154)

What are the meninges and why are they important? Where are they located? (p. 154)

What is the function of each of the 12 cranial nerves? (p. 161)
State the path of light through the eye from the cornea to the retina. (p. 226)
State the function of the following parts of the eye: cornea, lens, retina, vitreous humor, aqueous humor, lens pupil. ( p. 229)

 

State the function and location of photoreceptors. (p. 228)

 

Trace the pathway of signal propagation from stimulus to response, using the following stimuli:
Auditory: How does information about sound get from the ear to the brain? (p. 234)

Describe the role of hair cells in this process. (p. 234)

 

What part of the brain processes auditory information? (p. 234)

Visual: How does information about light get from the eye to the brain? What part of the brain processes visual information? (pp. 228, 230)

 

Olfactory (smell): How does information about smell get from the ear to the brain? What part of the brain processes olfactory information? Note: please

make sure to label the images on the page. (p. 239)

Vestibular (balance): Briefly discuss the role of the semicircular canals in balance, making sure to define the following (p. 235):
Utricle
Saccule
Static equilibrium
Dynamic equilibrium

 

What is the parasympathetic nervous system and when is it active? (p. 165)

What is the sympathetic nervous system and when is it active? (p. 165)

What is a synapse? Define the following parts of a synapse: (p. 151)

Pre-synaptic cell
Post-synaptic cell
Synaptic cleft
Neurotransmitters
Axon terminals
Dendrites
Action potential

Digestive System

Describe the process of chemical digestion and give an example of chemical digestion. (pages 101-102)

Complete the table of the major digestive organs by describing the function of, digestive substances (ex: hydrochloric acid, salivary amylase, bacteria,

etc.) added to, and the consistency of food (liquid, solid,chyme, bolus, etc.)) in the following structures. (pages 90, 93-97, and 103)
Structure Function Digestive substance added, if any Consistency of food
Oral cavity (mouth)
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine: duodenum
Small intestine: jejunum
Small Intestine: ileum
Large intestine: cecum
Large intestine: appendix
Large intestine: colon
Large intestine: rectum

 

Describe the location and function of the following valves and sphincters: (pages 94-97 and 103)
Cardioesophageal (lower esophageal) sphincter
Pyloric sphincter
Ileocecal valve
Rectal valve
Internal anal sphincter
External anal sphincter

 

Trace the pathway of food from ingestion to excretion (see information above)
Complete the table of the accessory digestive organs by describing their function and listing the substances produced by that organ, if it produces a

substance. (pages 98-99 and 103)
Organ Function Substances produced, if any
Salivary glands
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas

 

Fill in the following table by describing the digestion and absorption of the listed substances. If the location is the small intestine or large

intestine, be specific about which part of the intestine it occurs in. (pages 102 and 105-107)
Substance Digestion of (where and how) Absorbed in
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Vitamins
Water
Electrolytes (minerals)

 

What is the function of the bacteria in the large intestine?

Renal System
Sketch and identify and describe the function of the following structures of the renal system: kidneys, ureter, urethra, bladder. Note the position of

these structures relative to the other organs of the abdomen. (p. 130-134)
Discuss the structure and function of the following parts of the kidney: renal medulla, renal cortex, minor and major calyces, renal pelvis, renal sinus,

nephron. (p. 131-132)

 

Trace the pathway of urine formation and excretion from the body. (p. 132; p. 136-139)

 

Describe the process of urine formation in the nephron. (p. 133; p. 136-139)

 

Reproductive System
State the function and location of the following female reproductive organs (Tip: try to note their location in relation to other abdominal organs using

directional terms) (p. 244)

Ovaries (p. 252)

Fallopian tubes (p. 253)

Uterus: (Body, Fundus, Cervix; Endometrium, Myometrium, Perimetrium) (p. 254)

Vagina(p. 255)

 

Trace the pathway of an oocyte (unfertilized). (p. 244)
Trace the pathway of a zygote from the site of fertilization to implantation. (p. 244)

State the function of the following reproductive hormones in the female (p. 258-259)

 

Estrogen
Progesterone
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
What hormones regulate the ovarian cycle? When would levels of these hormones be highest? (p. 258)

State the function and location of the following male reproductive organs. (Tip: try to note their location in relation to other abdominal organs using

directional terms):
Testes (seminiferous tubules, Sertoli cells, interstitial cells)(p. 245)
Vas Deferens (p. 246)

Epididymis (p. 246)

Ejaculatory duct (p. 246)

Urethra (p. 246)

 

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