The role of different approaches to management and leadership
Scenario – The role of different approaches to management and leadership
People working together in groups to achieve some goal must have roles to play. Generally, these roles have to be defined and structured by someone who wants to make sure that people contribute in a specific way to group effort. Organising, therefore, is that part of management that involves establishing an intentional structure of roles for people to fill in an organisation. Intentional in that all tasks necessary to accomplish goals are assigned and assigned to people who can do those best. Indeed, the purpose of an organisational structure is to help in creating an environment for human performance. However, designing an organisational structure is not an easy managerial task because many problems are encountered in making structures fit situations, including both defining the kind of jobs that must be done and finding the people to do them (Barley and Kunda, 1992).
Leading is the influencing of people so that they will contribute to organisation and group goals; it has to do predominantly with the interpersonal aspect of managing. Most important problems to managers arise from people – their desires and attitudes, their behaviour as individuals and in groups. Hence, effective managers need to be effective leaders. Leading involves motivation, leadership styles and approaches and communication (Miles and Creed 1995).
Nonetheless, the influence of leaders rests on how others regard them. According to Weber (1978, 1996), leaders in this sense are lent prestige when employees believe in them and what they are doing, and are willing to accept their decisions. Conger and Kanungo (1988) and Kotter (1988) stress in particular that leaders need to understand that management refers to processes of planning, organising and controlling; while leadership is the process of motivating people to change. Amabile (1998) has suggested that, by influencing the nature of the work environment and organisational culture, leaders can affect organisational members’ attitude to work related change and motivation. The challenge then is to select a set of actions that are feasible within the capacity of the organization to absorb change and manage resources.
When cultural change occurs, employees become aware that the measuring tools for performance and loyalty have changed suddenly. This threat to old corporate values and organisational lifestyles leaves organisational members in a state of defensiveness accentuated by low levels of trust within the institution and cultural shock. Mirvis (1985) suggest further that employee reactions pass through four stages: (1) disbelief and denial, (2) anger, then rage and resentment, (3) emotional bargaining beginning in anger and ending in depression, and finally (4) acceptance. Unless these different stages are recognised and dealt with astutely, employees will resent change, will have difficulty reaching the acceptance stage, and the risk of merger failure is increased significantly.
"REPORT WRITING – Organisational Behaviour."
The role of different approaches to management and leadership.
TASKS…… AC2.1 – AC2.2 – AC2.3
(a)AC2.1 Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organisations of your choice (AC2.1)
Suggestion to a solution
The structure of AC2.1 can be organised into the sections as arranged below:
• Introduction. This will give a general view on leadership, the need for leaders and the impact of good leadership to an organisation. Manager v Leader. Some few known leaders will/should be mentioned here.
• Definitions of Leadership (Check various literature – minimum of 3 different sources); different leadership styles(4off), traits of leaders and the effectiveness of each approach and their suitability within various organisations should be considered.
• Give brief history about two (2) known leaders eg Steve Jobs and Bill Gates. Cover their involment (summary) in their various companies and their leadership approaches which have led to the achieved success. Link the identified leadership styles of of your chosen leaders to relevant theories, models, and framework.
• Compare the leadership styles: their styles’ impact on their organisations.
• Conclusion; this will consider the leadership approaches within their different organisation, their impact on the organisation and conclusion drawn. What is your recommendation?
A good answer will… offer a more insightful approach to the background and culture of the different organisation these leaders represent and explain some of the factors which led to their early successes ( e.g effects of globalisation, rise of SE Asia, collapse of communism, technology). Definitions may be given and contrasted – GLOBE definition would be appropriate for a multi-cultural, complex organisation ‘the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organisations of which they are members’ (House et al 2002 p. 13). There is a wealth of literature on known organisations like Apple and Jobs’ leadership approach – there will be evidence of such wider reading and research into the Apple organisation and that of the second leader which you consider. There will be an understanding of the differences between leadership and management and this will be applied to their organisations. There will be an acknowledgement that a ‘one size fits all’ approach to examining an individual’s leadership may not be appropriate.
There will be good evidence of judgement and critical thinking through sound application to the case study and the alternative organisation. Important aspects of the organisations’ culture need to be recognised – specialisation (managers are not ‘built’ for the sake of managing), command and control, simplicity, strict accountability, ability to move swiftly, scarce resources, constant feedback. Also, how someone like Jobs managed to combine being a ‘corporate dictator’ making every critical decision, with the indoctrination of a culture of responsibility
(b)AC2.2 Explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management. Illustrate and outline the development of management thought and its impact on modern management practices (AC2.2)
Suggestion to a solution
The importance of Management (Organisational) Theory shows that:
? It is necessary to view the interrelationships between the development of theory, behaviour in organisations and management practice.
? An understanding of the development of management thinking helps in understanding principles underlying the process of management.
The goal has been to characterize how effective and efficient organizations:
? Functions well
? Achieve and surpass goals
? survive and thrive in the environment
? what competitors emulate
Management theory therefore seeks to provide:
? a sound basis for action BUT if the action is to be effective the theory must be adequate and appropriate to the task and to improved organisational performance.
The organisational/management theory includes the following:
? Classical Approach (eg Bureaucracy & Scientific Management);
? Human Relations Approach;
? Systems Approach;
? Contingency Approach
The structural frame upholds the notion that organizations are judged primarily on and by the proper functioning of those elements which constitute good organization:
? giving appropriate emphasis to the process of integrating people and technology and
? enabling the organization to achieve its goals.
2. Explain what you understand by these theories.
3. Select ONE such theory and discuss as below:
The assumptions of scientific management
1. organizations exist to achieve established goals and objectives
2. organizations work best when rationality prevails over personal preferences and external pressures
3. structures must be designed to fit an organization’s circumstances (including its goals, technology, and environment)
4. organizations increase efficiency and enhance performance through specialization and division of labour
5. appropriate forms of coordination and control are essential to ensure that individuals and units work together although both are subordinate to organizational goals
6. problems and performance gaps arise from structural deficiencies and are best remedied through organizational restructuring
The Five Principles of Scientific Management…
1. shift all responsibility for the organization of work from the worker to the manager
2. use scientific methods to determine the most efficient way of doing the work
3. select the best person to perform the job thus designed
4. train the worker to do the work efficiently
5. monitor worker performance
Taylor’s intention was to effect a “mental revolution” aimed at transforming how people looked at work, their lives, and their world
? his principles focused attention upon the manager as a “social architect”
In practice episodes…
? managers apply the principles and concepts of scientific management to resolve the fundamental dilemmas present in the workplace
? focuses on the social context of work
? specifies goals, roles, and relationships
? encourages organizational efficiency and effectiveness
People are the heart of any organization. When people feel the organization is responsive to their needs and supportive of their goals, managers and leaders can count on their followers’ commitment and loyalty. Managers and leaders who are authoritarian or insensitive, who don’t communicate effectively, or who simply don’t care about their people can never be effective managers and leaders. The human resource manager and leader works on behalf of both the organization and its people, seeking to serve the best interests of both.
The job of the manager and leader is one of support and empowerment. Support takes a variety of forms: letting people know that they are important and that managers and leaders are concerned about them; listening to find out about their followers’ aspirations and goals; and, communicating personal warmth and openness. Human resource managers and leaders empower their followers through participation and openness as well as by making sure that they have the autonomy and the resources they need to do their jobs well. Human resource managers and leaders emphasize honest, two-way communication as a way to identify issues and resolve differences. They are willing to confront others when it is appropriate, but they try to do so in a spirit of openness and caring. Bolman & Deal (1991, p. 359).
(c)AC2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organisations justifying recommendations for its practice (AC2.3)
Identify two (2) companies (eg Coa Cola & MacDonalds) and do research work on their approaches to management: For the approaches to management, see your solution to AC2.2. Evaluate their approaches adopted to gain competitive advantage over their competitors. Compare and contrast, and conclude with your recommendation.
Make reference to any literature you use.
Full Harvard Referencing required.
British companies preferred.
Part B of ( A+B) Info Hints & Tips
• Development of management thought: scientific management; classical administration; bureaucracy; human relations approach; systems approach; contingency approach
• Functions of management: planning; organising; commanding; coordinating; controlling
• Managerial roles: interpersonal; informational; decisional
• Nature of managerial authority: power; authority; responsibility; delegation; conflict
• Frames of reference for leadership activities: opportunist; diplomat; technician; achiever; strategist; magician; pluralistic; transformational; change
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