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language as speech.

 
pay attention to ‘language’ as one specific type of human communication: compare language with non- linguisitc modes of human communication, systematically explore differences between three main modes of linguistic communication in contemporary life – spoken language, written language and digital/online language.

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1. Be able to engage in critical debates about the nature and use of language in written, spoken and online contexts.

2. Have an understanding of some of the conceptual terminology used for discussing language.

3. Begun to understand how linguistic and non-linguistic communication interact with one another.

_______________________________________________

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Traits of a speech language pathologist

 
Why are the following traits crucial to success as a speech language pathologist?

-good interpersonal skills
-ability to take another perspective
-ability to problem solve

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Linguistics

 

LFTMO4 ASSIGNMENT TWO (January 2016)
Before you start to write, read in the Student Guide, the
– advice on formal written English, respecting conventions of academic style
– learning outcomes for LFTMO4
– graded assessment criteria for the Certificate

For each question that you choose, you are required to write 1,000 words.
Do not write 500, or the reader will suspect that you are not able to analyse and evaluate the concepts, and do not write 1,500, or the reader will suspect that you do not understand the specific focus of the question.

Answer every question within each section of the question that you choose.
Number the sections of your answer accordingly – a), b) etc. Take account of the weighting given in brackets. For example, if a section is worth 10%, you will not need to write much detail, and if it is worth 40%, you will need to write a long, deep answer. You will lose marks if you do not answer every question within each section of your chosen question.

You have 3 days to write Assignment Two. You can use your LFTMO4 notes, your text-books and any other reading that you find useful. Your assignment should be word-processed and submitted via turnitin

You should write 1,000 words for each question (i.e. a total of 2,000 words for the whole assignment).

Part A: Grammar (Unit 3)

1. Word classes

a) What are the tests to determine whether a word in English is a noun, verb, adjective or adverb? Remember to refer to the literature in answering the question. (20%)

b) For each of these four word classes, give one example of your own and show how it fits each of the tests you mentioned in section a). (30%)

c) To what extent do you think students should be taught how to do these tests? Give a detailed answer, critically reflecting on what you have read and explaining how you might incorporate the whole idea into classroom activities. (50%)

Part B: Lexis, Semantics and Pragmatics (Unit 4)

1. Context, Cohesion and Coherence

a. Explain the following terms in your own words and provide your own examples of each:
1. Linguistic context (also known as co-text)
2. Situational context (also known as physical context)
3. Cultural context (also known as social context)
4. Cohesion
(20%)
b. Critically discuss how important it is for you as a teacher and for your students to have an awareness of the role of context (situational, cultural and linguistic) and an understanding of the concept of cohesion in teaching / learning a second language. Justify your answer with examples from the classroom context, remembering to refer to the literature in discussing your ideas. (50%)
c. Devise and justify an activity that you could give to a group of advanced students to train them in the understanding of the three types of context (linguistic, situational and cultural). Remember to refer to the literature in answering the question. (30%)

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English Language Teaching Methods

 
This is a master essay,my major is Applied Linguistics and TESOL.Can you help me to choose title B: Discuss a specific issue in teaching or learning English as a foreign or a second language in a context you are familiar with, and possible improvements in teaching pedagogy with supporting evidence from relevant theories and principles .
pls ensure the quality because this essay makes up 70% of the total assessment mark.thanks a lot.

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“Language contrasts may be easier to overcome in some contexts but not in some others because of the different restrictions to translation freedom that is allowed in specific contexts. Exemplify and discuss.


-The writer MUST!!! follow powerpoint slides as a template and structure format
– Writer, feel free to contact client at any time and instance needed
– References MUST FOLLOW the attachment provided “References file”

– Language contrasts in translation theories: Pragmatics, Semantics, Syntax, Lexicon.
– Identify why Language contrasts may be easier to overcome in certain contexts over others(four theories)
-Identify restrictions to translation freedom, from the specific contexts
-Exemplify and discuss.
-think out the box and critically analysis, to compare and contrast and answer the question

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Translational Research For Practice & Population

 
TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH FOR PRACTICE & POPULATIONS

Evaluating Comprehensive Literature Reviews – The graduate evaluates comprehensive literature reviews for historical context, completeness, applicability, reliability, organization, and quality of information sources.
Competency Translation of Research in Evidence-Based Practice – The graduate interprets evidence and evaluates its applicability to nursing practice.

Introduction:
One of the key roles of the master’s-prepared nurse is to lead practice change across the full spectrum of healthcare settings. Master’s-prepared nurses must be able to translate the existing body of knowledge around a phenomenon of interest (accessible through published research studies) to inform decision making related to nursing practice.

Requirements:

A. Identify a current nursing practice within your healthcare setting that requires change.
Note: This may be your current work setting or a setting you wish to work in.
1. Describe the current nursing practice.

2. Discuss why the current nursing practice needs to be changed.

B. Identify the key stakeholders within your healthcare setting who are part of the current nursing practice.

1. Describe the role each identified key stakeholder will play to support the proposed practice change.
C. Evaluate five sources from scholarly peer-reviewed journals, published within the past five years, that relate to the change identified in part A.

1. Create an evidence critique table (see “Sample Evidence Critique Table”) by identifying the evidence strength and evidence hierarchy of each chosen source.
D. Develop an evidence summary based on the findings from part C that includes each of five sources used (suggested length of 1–2 pages for all sources).
E. Recommend a specific best practice based on the evidence summary developed in part D.

F. Identify a practice change model that is appropriate to apply to the proposed practice change.

1. Justify why you chose the practice change model.

2. Explain how to apply the identified model to guide the implementation of the proposed practice change.
G. Discuss possible barriers to successful implementation of the proposed practice change.
H. Discuss any possible ethical implications that may arise while planning or implementing the proposed practice change.
Note: For definitions of terms commonly used in the rubric, see the Rubric Terms web link included in the Evaluation Procedures section.

Note: When using sources to support ideas and elements in an assessment, the submission MUST include APA formatted in-text citations with a corresponding reference list for any direct quotes or paraphrasing. It is not necessary to list sources that were consulted if they have not been quoted or paraphrased in the text of the assesment.

Note: No more than a combined total of 30% of a submission can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from outside sources, even if cited correctly. For tips on using APA style, please refer to the APA Handout web link included in the APA Guidelines section.
File Attachments:
1. Sample Evidence Critique Table link opens in new window

Click to Show/Hide Method
Evaluation Method
value: 0.00 value: 1.00 value: 2.00 value: 3.00 value: 4.00 Score/Level
Articulation of Response (clarity, organization, mechanics)

The candidate provides unsatisfactory articulation of response.
The candidate provides weak articulation of response.
The candidate provides limited articulation of response.
The candidate provides adequate articulation of response.
The candidate provides substantial articulation of response.

A. Nursing Practice Identification

The candidate does not identify a current nursing practice within the candidate’s healthcare setting that requires change.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
The candidate identifies a current nursing practice within the candidate’s healthcare setting that requires change.

A1. Nursing Practice Description

The candidate does not provide an appropriate description of the current nursing practice.
The candidate provides an appropriate description, with no detail, of the current nursing practice.
The candidate provides an appropriate description, with limited detail, of the current nursing practice.
The candidate provides an appropriate description, with adequate detail, of the current nursing practice.
The candidate provides an appropriate description, with substantial detail, of the current nursing practice.

A2. Why Nursing Practice Needs to Change
The candidate does not provide a logical discussion of why the current nursing practice needs to be changed.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with no support, of why the current nursing practice needs to be changed.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with limited support, of why the current nursing practice needs to be changed.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with adequate support, of why the current nursing practice needs to be changed.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with substantial support, of why the current nursing practice needs to be changed.

B. Key Stakeholders
The candidate does not identify the key stakeholders within the healthcare setting who are part of the current nursing practice.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
The candidate identifies the key stakeholders within the healthcare setting who are part of the current nursing practice.

B1. Stakeholders’ Roles
The candidate does not provide an appropriate description of the role each identified key stakeholder will play to support the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides an appropriate description, with no detail, of the role each identified key stakeholder will play to support the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides an appropriate description, with limited detail, of the role each identified key stakeholder will play to support the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides an appropriate description, with adequate detail, of the role each identified key stakeholder will play to support the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides an appropriate description, with substantial detail, of the role each identified key stakeholder will play to support the proposed practice change.

C. Evidence Critique Table

The candidate does not provide a logical evaluation of 5 sources from scholarly peer-reviewed journals, published within the past five years, that relate to the change identified in part A.
The candidate provide a logical evaluation of 1–4 sources from scholarly peer-reviewed journals, published within the past five years, that relate to the change identified in part A.
The candidate provide a logical evaluation, with limited detail, of 5 sources from scholarly peer-reviewed journals, published within the past five years, that relate to the change identified in part A.
The candidate provide a logical evaluation, with adequate detail, of 5 sources from scholarly peer-reviewed journals, published within the past five years, that relate to the change identified in part A,
The candidate provide a logical evaluation, with substantial detail, of 5 sources from scholarly peer-reviewed journals, published within the past five years, that relate to the change identified in part A.

D. Evidence Summary

The candidate does not provide an evidence summary based on the findings from part C that includes each of the 5 sources used.
The candidate provides an evidence summary based on the findings from part C, with no detail, that includes each of the 5 sources used.
The candidate provides an evidence summary based on the findings from part C, with limited detail, that includes each of the 5 sources used.
The candidate provides an evidence summary based on the findings from part C, with adequate detail, that includes each of the 5 sources used.
The candidate provides an evidence summary based on the findings from part C, with substantial detail, that includes each of the 5 sources used.

E. Recommend Best Practice

The candidate does not provide an appropriate recommendation for a specific best practice based on the evidence summary developed in part D.
The candidate provides an appropriate recommendation, with no detail, of a specific best practice based on the evidence summary developed in part D.
The candidate provides an appropriate recommendation, with limited detail, of a specific best practice based on the evidence summary developed in part D.
The candidate provides an appropriate recommendation, with adequate detail, of a specific best practice based on the evidence summary developed in part D.
The candidate provides an appropriate recommendation, with substantial detail, of a specific best practice based on the evidence summary developed in part D.

F. Practice Change Model

The candidate does not identify a practice change model that is appropriate to apply to the proposed practice change.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
The candidate identifies a practice change model that is appropriate to apply to the proposed practice change.

F1. Model Justification

The candidate does not provide a logical justification of why the practice change model was chosen.
The candidate provides a logical justification, with no support, of why the practice change model was chosen.
The candidate provides a logical justification, with limited support, of why the practice change model was chosen.
The candidate provides a logical justification, with adequate support, of why the practice change model was chosen.
The candidate provides a logical justification, with substantial support, of why the practice change model was chosen.

F2. Model to Guide Implementation

The candidate does not provide a logical explanation of how to apply the identified model to guide the implementation of the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical explanation, with no detail, of how to apply the identified model to guide the implementation of the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical explanation, with limited detail, of how to apply the identified model to guide the implementation of the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical explanation, with adequate detail, of how to apply the identified model to guide the implementation of the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical explanation, with substantial detail, of how to apply the identified model to guide the implementation of the proposed practice change.

G. Barriers to Implementation

The candidate does not provide a logical discussion of possible barriers to successful implementation of the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with no detail, of possible barriers to successful implementation of the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with limited detail, of possible barriers to successful implementation of the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with adequate detail, of possible barriers to successful implementation of the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with substantial detail, of possible barriers to successful implementation of the proposed practice change.

H. Ethical Implications

The candidate does not provide a logical discussion of possible ethical implications that may arise while planning or implementing the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with no support, of possible ethical implications that may arise while planning or implementing the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with limited support, of possible ethical implications that may arise while planning or implementing the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with adequate support, of possible ethical implications that may arise while planning or implementing the proposed practice change.
The candidate provides a logical discussion, with substantial support, of possible ethical implications that may arise while planning or implementing the proposed practice change.

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The influence of the mother tongue

 
CHAPTER1
INTRODUCTION

1)Background of the Project.
2)Terms in the Body.
3)Purpose of the Study.
4)Methodology.
5)Keywords.
6)Sample.

And I need 4 chapter
Also make Questioners and you should analysis Questioners

You should use sources form books or Internet and write if you use any sentence from book you should puts source name of book and who write book

Also if you use any sentences from internet also you should write name of web from where you take this sentence

And I prefer write project from your languages ,but no problem if you choose any sentence from book or Internet but the important things put from where you get any sentence

Note:
Also when make Questioners you should distributed Questioners to people and when distributed Questioners from people you should analysis all Questioners

Put everything in projec

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linguistics

 
Language Studies – LING6005 (MA)
Assessment 2 pt 1 Phonology (25%) 2015
This assessment must be completed by you alone without help from another student, tutor or another person after
re
ceipt of this paper. Submission of this assessment indicates that you agree to and have complied with this
condition. Since it is an open book assessment you can consult your lecture and tutorial notes and materials to
help you complete the tasks but do not quote from any of your sources. Use only your own words.
1. Transcribe the following sentence using the IPA to demonstrate the sounds of a broad Australian accent.
The phrases have been adapted from Afferbeck Lauder’s book called Strine. (See the ‘standard’ English
version below*). Use the spelling of the words to help you transcribe in phonemic script the broad Australian
pronunciation of this phrase.
Hair bat chewinim caminova tmipe lice isarvo?
(5
marks)
*(in ‘standard’ English: How about you and him coming over to my place this afternoon? Do not use
standard English pronunciation for your transcription).
2. Using your IPA transcription above, identify an example of elision, metathesis, assimilation, and
epenthesis, if one can be found. Identify the relevant word/s using standard spelling, write out the
corresponding phonemic transcription, and write a comment to explain your example as in the example
below. If no example can be found, write ‘no example found’.
e.g. epenthesis length – with the added /k/
elision
metathesis
assimilation
epenthesis
(4 marks)
3a Explain the concepts of a phoneme and an allophone in your own words. Do not quote from your
sources. (2 marks)
3b Find examples of THREE different phonemes and their allophones in six words from the following
dialogue.
A: How about you and him coming over to my place this afternoon?
B: Well, I don’t feel like it really. I’ve been in town all day and I just want to watch television at home.
e.g. the /æ/ phoneme is pronounced differently in the words map and man. The /æ/ is
nasalized in man but is not nasalized in map.
(3 marks)
4. Write three short dialogues to illustrate how different intonations of the word ‘no’ can communicate
different meanings of this word. Use your own punctuation and the words rise and/or, fall to indicate the
intonation being used, and explain the meaning conveyed in each case.
e.g. A: Manchester City won the soccer match.
B: Noooo! intonation long fall
meaning extreme disappointment that this soccer team won.
(3 marks)
5. Describe TWO aspects of English phonology that were/are/ a problem for you or a student of yours (e.g.
pronouncing certain vowels, consonants, consonant clusters, stressed syllables in a word, using
appropriate intonation, etc).
• Describe the two problems and what steps were/could be taken to improve the pronunciation.
• Write approximately 200 – 250words about each problem.
• Include at least 3 academic references in-text and end-text to support your arguments.
(4 marks each, total 8 marks).
Total 25 marks

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Language Arts Research

 
Write a three- page critique of three different language arts education research articles from three different resource journals. You must submit three three-page critiques.

COMPLETE A TOTAL OF 9 PAGES (3 PAGES FOR EACH CRITIQUE).

Each critique should include the following information:

•Research Question – What research question did the researcher(s) attempt to answer in this study?
•Participants – Who participated in the research study? What grade level or other information do you know about the participants?
•Procedures/Data Collection Methods – What data was collected during the study and how was it collected?
•Analysis – How was the data analyzed after it was collected?
•Results – What did the study conclude?
•Recommendations – What recommendations did the researchers make to
teachers/ educators/ other researchers?
•Impact – How does this study impact on your personal philosophy about language arts teaching and the learning process?

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Final exam

Consider the following data from the Australian language Lardil. This language exhibits a process
known as truncation, a term which refers to the deletion of underlying material resulting in the
shortening of a form. Additionally, the language also exhibits a processes of augmentation, which
occurs when material is added to the underlying form for phonological reasons.
Please focus on the alternations which are most clearly visible between the underlying
stems and their corresponding nominative forms. Data from other categories (nonfuture
accusative, future accusative) is also provided, but your analysis needs to account for only the
nominative forms. “C” stands for “consonant” and “V” stands for “vowel”. Pay careful attention
to the way in which the data have been organized; to help guide you through the data, I’ve included
a brief summary of each set of data following its presentation:
a. C-loss from stem
Underlying stem Nominative Nonfuture accusative Future accusative Gloss
// [] [-] [-]
‘story’
// [] [-] [-]
‘queen fish’
// [] [-] [-]
‘boomerang’
Here in (a), we see that in the nominative form of nouns, a consonant is lost from the end of the
underlying stem. Now look at (b):
b. V-loss from stem
Underlying stem Nominative Nonfuture accusative Future accusative Gloss
// [] [-] [-]
‘oyster species’
// [] [-] [-]
‘rainbow’
In (b), we see that when the underlying stem is vowel-final, the vowel is deleted in the nominative
form. Now consider (c):
c. CV-loss from stem
Underlying stem Nominative Nonfuture accusative Future accusative Gloss
// [] [-] [-]
‘husband’
// [] [-] [-]
‘meat’
// [] [-] [-]
‘termite’
// [] [-] [-]
‘mullah’
(c) illustrates cases in which an underlying final CV-sequence is deleted in the nominative. The
next example of truncation is shown in (d):
3
d. CCV-loss from stem
Underlying stem Nominative Nonfuture accusative Future accusative Gloss
// [] [-] [-]
‘wooden axe’
// [] [-] [-]
‘dragonfly’
In (d), we see cases in which an underlying final CCV-sequence is deleted in the nominative. Now
examine (e), in which no truncation occurs:
e. Cases with no truncation
Underlying stem Nominative Nonfuture accusative Future accusative Gloss
// [] [-] [-]
‘inside’
// [] [-] [-]
‘sea’
In (e) we encounter cases in which we might expect a stem-final vowel to be deleted in the
nominative (as first seen in (b) above), but in which truncation does not take place; instead, the
stem-final vowel actually surfaces in the nominative form in (e). Now consider (f), in which
augmentation occurs:
f. Augmentation of short stems by vowel epenthesis
Underlying stem Nominative Nonfuture accusative Future accusative Gloss
// [] [-] [-]
‘fish’
// [] [-] [-]
‘head’
In (f), we see cases in which we might expect a stem-final consonant to be deleted in the
nominative (as seen first in (a) above), but in which the stem-final consonant actually surfaces in
the nominative form in addition to an epenthetic vowel. This epenthesis is our first example of
augmentation. A further example is provided in (g):
g. Augmentation of short stems by CV-epenthesis
Underlying stem Nominative Nonfuture accusative Future accusative Gloss
// [] [-] [-]
‘hand’
// [] [-] [-]
‘neck’
In (g), we encounter cases where not only does the underlying stem-final consonant surface, but
we also find an epenthetic CV-sequence in the nominative. A final case of augmentation is
presented in (h):
4
h. More cases of augmentation of short stems by CV-epenthesis
Underlying stem Nominative Nonfuture accusative Future accusative Gloss
// [] [-] [-]
‘speech’
// [] [-] [-]
‘some’
Finally, in (h), we are presented with cases which resemble those in (g) but in which the epenthetic
consonant is different.
Tasks
Your job is to develop an optimality-theoretic account of the Lardil data. Your focus should be
on the nominative forms only; please do not worry about accounting for the other forms. They
are provided solely to give a complete paradigm, but your analysis does not need to extend to them
here.
Approach this problem step-by-step. To assist you in this, analyze one set of data at a time,
and address the following questions, but keep in mind that your final exam may not be presented
simply as a list of answers to these questions. Rather, you must submit a clear and concise
document written in complete sentences, and you must include examples of data and tableaux to
illustrate each step of your analysis.
(1) What do the data in (a) tell you about syllable structure in Lardil? Does the language permit
codas? If so, does it place any restrictions on codas? With this information, you should be
able to determine the relevant markedness constraint to handle the data in (a). Do
underlying stems surface faithfully in their nominative form? The answer to this question
should lead you to pick the correct faithfulness constraint at issue here. How is this
constraint ranked with respect to the markedness constraint regarding codas? Demonstrate
this ranking in a tableau that considers at least two candidates: the optimal candidate, and
the faithful candidate. Your tableau must be accompanied by clear, concise explanation in
complete sentences. Also, are there other potential candidates to consider? If so, show how
they are ruled out. (4 points)
(2) The data in (b) are admittedly weird. To help you account for these forms, I am providing
you with the following constraint – use it in your analysis:
FREE-VOWEL
“An underlying vowel at the end of a stem must be deleted in the nominative form on the
surface.”
First of all, consider the constraint FREE-VOWEL: is it a natural-seeming constraint, in your
view? If so, why? If not, why not? Write at least three clear, concise sentences discussing
your opinion of this constraint, and include arguments and evidence for your views.
Regardless of your answer here, please make sure that your analysis uses this constraint.
As the data in (b) demonstrate, the constraint FREE-VOWEL must outrank (at least) one
important faithfulness constraint. Which faithfulness constraint is this? Illustrate this
5
crucial ranking with a tableau that considers the faithful candidate and the optimal
candidate, as well as any other potential candidates. (2 points)
(3) Now consider the data in (c). Account for these data using clear, concise explanation in
complete sentences. Are any additional constraints necessary, or are the constraints from
questions (1) and (2) sufficient? Demonstrate how the forms in (c) are accounted for with
at least one tableau and a concise, clearly written explanation accompanying it, though
more than one tableau may be useful. (2 points)
(4) Now analyze the forms in (d). Again, do you need any new constraints? If so, what are
they? Illustrate the analysis of forms in (d) with at least one tableau and a concise, clearly
written explanation accompanying it. (2 points)
(5) Examine the data in (e). Given what you’ve seen in (a)-(d), you should expect the forms in
(e) to behave differently from the way they actually behave. Describe this difference in
behavior in plain English using clear, concise sentences. In order to account for the forms
in (e), you’ll need another markedness constraint, which I will provide you with here – use
it:
MINIMALWORD
“Words must be at least two syllables long on the surface.”
First, consider the constraint MINIMALWORD: is it a natural-seeming constraint in your
view? If so, why? If not, why not? Have we seen any other data this semester where this
constraint might have played a role? Write at least three clear, concise sentences discussing
this issue, and include arguments and evidence for your views. Next, discuss how the
constraint MINIMALWORD must be ranked in Lardil with respect to the constraint FREEVOWEL.
Illustrate this ranking with at least one tableau, though more may be useful. Your
tableau must be accompanied by clear, concise explanation in complete sentences. (2
points)
(6) Now look at the forms in (f). Given the constraint MINIMALWORD, do you expect the
underlying stems in (f) to surface faithfully in the nominative, or do you expect to find
what you see there? Describe how the nominative forms in (f) are unfaithful to their
underlying stems. Which constraint is being violated? How must this constraint be ranked
with respect to the other constraints? Illustrate each crucial ranking with at least one
tableau, though more may be useful, and accompany each ranking with clear, concise
explanation. (2 points)
(7) (g) and (h) present an even more complicated scenario: not only do the nominative forms
contain more material than the underlying stems (similar to what you found in (e)), but
they seem to contain an excess of epenthetic material. Think about why this excess material
might be present. What constraint does having all this material satisfy? (Hint: it’s an
Alignment constraint!) Illustrate the analysis with at least one tableau for each crucial
constraint ranking that you require. Accompany each ranking with clear, concise
explanation. (4 points)
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(8) Finally, consider the forms in (h) and describe in clear, concise prose what differentiates
these from the forms in (g). How are these forms accounted for? Illustrate the analysis with
one tableau for each crucial constraint ranking. Accompany each ranking with clear,
concise explanation. (2 points)
(Extra credit problem starts on the next page)

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