Hate Crime in Newyork City

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The rate of crime in any nation will always attract the attention of the administration of the day. However, if the crime itself appears to be disguised, it becomes challenging for the management to take any steps. Hate crime is such a qualitative cadre of crime with high relativity. However, it is indisputable that hate crime is wide spread.

(Barsky, R F, p 271) explains that hate crime will go beyond just threatening the welfare and the safety of the citizenry of any nation. It inflicts on the victims incalculable emotional and physical pain beside rearing and damaging the fabric of a free society. Such crimes that have been motivated by hatred of invidious magnitudes normally sense weighty messages of the discriminatory and intolerant nature of society. The victims of this crime and their society feel secluded.

A healthy democratic process can not exist devoid of ideals that promote human freedom. Overall, hate crime militate, disrupt and intimidate the entire community. Besides, it does vitiate any civilisation that would be enjoyed by the society that is founded on democratic ideals. In any ideal society that is democratic, the approval of practices and believes of other remains within the premise of the community and never without.

Saucier (Saucier, et al p 897 finds it very regrettable that presently the American law remains inadequately dumb on the extent of the harm that is caused by hate crime on not only public order but the individual who is affected. The need for the review and the repeal of the present legal provisions is therefore calling and inevitable. There is the dire need that provisions are made indicating the gravity of hate crime and the need thereto for preventing the recurrence of crimes of this nature.  Forthwith, there is also need to pass legislations that would see hate crimes punishable with due and appropriate severity.

It is an unfortunate scenario however that there is opposition on the passing of such laws that would help fight the practice. Congressional Digest (Congressional Digest p 31) noted that over the past, the criminal system of the United States has found itself in some tight place over the way hate crime has been handled. The argument, which appears very lopsided and protracted, is that such provisions are in conflict with the freedom of speech and expression. Nonetheless, within the very supreme law of the land infringement into the rights of others is punishable with due severity. Another protracted argument is that such provisos would tamper with the fundamental freedom of thought; but then there exists not freedom world over without curtailments.

The argument that passing hate crime legislations would make certain beliefs and ideas illegal particular those that have religious orient, is by any standards, logically and feasibly misplaced. In addition, the asserting that hate crime legislation would exacerbate conflicts is most suspect. While there could some water within these arguments, it is only logical that all the rights are protected. While it has always been taken that such utterances are meant to positively critique groups or individuals; it need to remain known such activities should not infringe into the rights of others.

Whichever the approach to hate crime, whatever the orientation of the hate crime, whichever the names used; (Barsky, R F, p 272) states that hate crime by all standards will remain against the human will and is non justifiable under whatever circumstances. The review and backlash of the practice and the related activities is worth the present man and prevailing democratic course.

 

 

Research questions

            The issue of hate crime is posing a big challenge to the entire globe. It therefore becomes imperative that concerted efforts are made to try and combat these dehumanising acts. The realisations that hate crime is a reality and part of New York City seems to have brought a great awakening to America and particularly in NYC.

The aforementioned discussed challenges form the basis for the research questions. This research, based on the backdrop of the above prelude endears to answer directly and indirectly the under listed questions and concerns.

a)      What are the major forms of hate crime that are being experience in New York City?

b)      What is the frequency of encounter of hate crime in New York City/

c)      Who are the main victims of hate crime in New York City?

d)     Is the practice of hate crime justifiable under any circumstances?

e)      What are the ills that are characteristic of hate crime?

f)       Are the available legislations sufficient and all inclusive enough to check the vice?

g)      What are the possible policies and policy guidelines that can be adopted to change the present trend on hate crime?

h)      Would the present legislation be sufficient in fighting crime that are directly linked or indirectly linked to hate crime?

i)        Would individuals have a role in the control of hate crime in New York City and around the world?

j)        Would hate crime, if unchecked find its way throughout the entire United States of America?

k)      Which other states and regions in United States of America has a high prevalence of hate crime?

The research will answer these questions either directly or indirectly. Finding the answers to this questions imply that the research will be able to establish the causal aspects of the debacle and subsequently the probable preventive measures that would be adopted by any interested parties in assisting to combat the menace. This will therefore act as a move towards unlocking the puzzle that has been posed by the hate crime, not only in New York City but across the world.

The answers t the questions will also seek to demystify the assertion cum believe that hate crime is a preserve of the poor. The paper will find the correlation, if any, between colour and victimisation of such nature.

 

 

 

Research Hypothesis

Hate crime seems to be tearing through the American political economic and social fabric. In unravelling the inherent challenges that are being posed by the hate crime the research will adopt the following research hypothesis:

a)      That major hate crime cases are concentrated in New York City.

b)      That the frequency of encountering hate crime in New York City is high compared to other parts of America.

c)      That the main victims of hate crime are black Americans, American Latinos and women

d)     That under certain circumstances, hate crime is justifiable and should not be given a blanket demonization

e)      That hate crime is characterised by the denial of basic human rights and under no circumstance would there be such justification for the same.

f)       That the available legislations are not comprehensive enough to help curb hate crime.

g)      That hate crime would be reduced through the passing of effective legislations   New York City

h)      That individual has a tidal role in the combating of hate crime practises and their involvement is imperative both within and without New York City.

i)        That if hate crime is not checked, it may spread through the whole of the United States of America.

The research will endear to establish whether the aforementioned hypotheses are null or alternative. But most importantly, the research will lead to the finding the key areas of concern on hate crime in the united states with specific reference of New York City. Subsequently, the research consequent to some of the hypothesis will unravel and shade light on the dynamics and challenges of ridding hate crime and the combating prospects thereof

The hypothesis will also direct the research towards demystifying the myth that hate crime has been largely meted on black Americans and women. This would be very incidental in helping marshal efforts towards the elimination and prevention of the menace.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Definition of Terms and Acronyms

NYC                                       : New York City

Hate crime                               : Is the victimizing of persons based on their religion, race, nationality, ethnic identification, and sex and gender orientation.

Mitigate                                   : check the rate of spread of something unwanted

Reliability                                : the ability to have similar results with even another researcher under similar circumstances

Validity                                   : ability to measure what it is intended to measure

Militate                                    : working against or an impediment to the achievement of the set goals.

VAWA                                   : Violence Against Women Act

Transgender                            : Hate crime between the genders

Inter-group hate crimes           : hate crimes between the racist and social groups

HCSA                                     : Hate Crimes Statistics Act

Homophobia                           : fear for hate crimes from the opposite sex such as domestic violence

NYPD                                     New York City Police Department

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Limitations of the Study

The study will have a number of limitations that will curtail the universality of the findings. These limitations will include but not restricted to the following:

  1. The research will be only restricted in New York City
  2. The city is densely populated, estimated at about 8.4 million people, this makes the sample size relatively wanting
  3. Some of the hate crime activities have been taken as normal unfolding hence becoming hard to identify the practice of such practises.
  4. The cost of handling an extensive research is very high given the population, in addition such research is without the reach of a single researcher
  5. There is very little that has been documented on the issue of hate crime in New York City this makes the researcher delve into the research with the least clue of the state as is on the ground
  6. The research topic is weird and tends to delve into the private lives of the resident of NYC. Given the pride of the city some information provided may not be the ideal state

Basic Assumptions

The research will make a number of assumptions in the analysis and in the presentation of the results. The following are some of the assumptions that research will work with:

a)      The information offered by the sample population will be representative of the 8.4 million residents of NYC

b)      Most of the respondents will be able to make a correct judgement of the hate crime in NYC

c)      NYC represents the wider America and the world at large, hence he deductions made would be treated as universal

d)     The methods adopted in the fight again hate crime would be effectively used in the whole of the United States and therefore the whole world

e)      Hate crime has the least economic benefits that can be accrued from its practise therefore they should be eradicated.

The aforementioned are assumed for the purpose of this research as the ideal position.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literature Review

Introduction
               There exists substantive literature on the topic of hate crime. However there is no specific literature that has been very particular on the issue of hate crime in New York City. The available literature looks at the definition of hate crime and areas of prevalence. However, none of this literature seems to relate with precision the issue of hate crime and colour. Within this review a cross examination of literature on the topic is undertaken.
               There have been rising concerns on the aspect of hate crime prevalence in New York City over the last few years. Apparently this archaic practise has hit NYC with such surprise that social scientists are finding it imperative to review hate crime anew. The residents of the NYC are finding it pretty unbelievable that in a democratic state of the US’s calibre this can be experienced. Looking at the state departments, at least not a single strategy has over the years been laid to this effect; apparently not the least assistance can be obtained on the shebang from the custodian of the citizens.
               While to same extend the state has tried to control the perpetuation of hate crime in the city, sensitisation has been relatively low implying that the state has only addressed the menace on the outer part, leaving the inner part desolate. Such follow-ups have also been very poor; this has left the vulnerable prone to this practise and suffering on the pretext of lack of government knowledge. The right step towards the mitigation of the practises lies in civic education.
               While it is appreciable that some organisations have made a number of steps towards mitigating the menace, relative to the population of NYC, estimated at 8.4 millions, this is only a drop in the ocean. The human right protection agencies have still much that needs to be done to assist I curbing this dehumanising and undemocratic practise. Nevertheless, is the worth course in the direction.
               According to research, hate crime has been reported to be on the increase across the US. Research equally shows that these crimes have traversed bounds of socioeconomic and ethnic orient. It is equally documented that hate crime have been cited across varied settings inclusive of rural areas and urban centres.

Discussion on the reviewed of literature

The literature reviewed showed that hate crime is prevalent particularly between the genders and the sexes. This has been common with respect to gender identity. Apparently behind every crime, Saucier et al (Saucier, D., Brown, T L., Mitchell, R. C., Cawman, A J., p 902) asserts that those that have been targeted by the practise have been victims because of their religious, ethnic, sexual orient disability and gender identity. Civic leaders and law enforcement agencies have discovered that the failure to address the practises was eating into the social fabric of the United States of America.

It is appreciable today that there is increasing consensus on the need for the prosecution of most of the hate crime cases. Most of the American law enforcement agencies and policy makers are of the view that biases that are based on such segregation need to have a stiffer punishment that it is today. Notably the passing of legislation by the congress in 1994 towards this cardinal course was worth it. This legislation meant that a sentence was to be promulgated against crimes that were committed on account of peoples’ perceived sex orient, gender or disability.

Barsky (Barsky, R F, p 271) states that most of the victims of the anti-lesbian, anti-transgender and antigay incidents seem to have found it insignificant report such cases to the authorities. Sources privy to the law enforcement agencies within New York City do indicate that hate crimes are the least reported in the entire United States of America. Apparently, while lesbianism and gay has not had full legislative leeway throughout the United States, but spatial legislative approval, suspicion has mad them more prone to this crimes. The sources also suggest that these two cadres are the major victims of hate crimes.

Sex oriented hate crimes have also been so much on the increase. Statistics show that sex related hate crimes are rampant across the US. The FBI showed in 2005 that sex related hate crimes were the third highest reported form of hate crime that were reported. Of the cases of hate crime that received the attention of the law enforcement agencies, 14.5 % were related to sex (Danny G., p 120).

Statistics collected between the years of 1991 through to 2005 showed that there were 15000 hate crime cases that were of sex orient. In the year 2000, the numbers increased by 200% from the previous year raising an alarm to the law enforcement agencies (Bunar, N., p 169). To show the gravity of hate crime of sexual nature, the hate crimes of this orient have always been understated.

In spite of the many violent acts perpetrated against on the basis of the sex orient of individuals. Gender hate crimes have also been very prevalent. While this hate crimes have over time been treated as personal attacks, this crimes need to be treated with extra vigilance. A considerable number of women have been treated with brutality, terror, and some even assaulted to death. It is appreciable according to Sherry (Sherry M., p 26) that the passing of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) these violent acts have been utterly been reduced. It has become apparent today that most of the crimes have been mere biases against the fair sex than attacks.

Saucier (Saucier, et al p 897) states that most of the states in the United States of America have put statutes in place that prohibit hate crime that are gender based. The 50 American states have passed statutes that prohibit rapes and other related hate crime that are meted against women. On the contrary, only 24 states have statutes that are protective of women on the hate crimes that are gender biased. Moreover it appears to be contradictory that some of the states have statutes that appear out of the line with the federal position on the issue of hate crime.

The legislation that has been passed by the federal government seems to be in line with the expectation of the Violence Against Women Act. However, King (King et al p 314) states that given that all the rape, assault and domestic violence act cases have been federalised, it is imperative that the state statutes be in line with the federal provisions. Although the legislation have been drafted to ensure that the investigations and prosecutions thereof, of the federal hate crime cases are restricted to crimes that are largely motivated by some gender based animus, this seems to implicate largely the federal interests. Perhaps this is the main hate crime challenge that the federal government faces.

It has come to be identified that transgender person are the frequent targets of hate crimes. This has been largely based on their perceived non conformity with the gender norms and their inherent sexual orient or perhaps both the two. These types of crime (transgender) have been found to be more violent than other forms of hate crimes.  This has been compounded by the fact that most of the transgender prosecutions have been largely biased with particular reference to the mistrust of the local law enforcers.

The aforementioned lack of the federal backstop on both local and state authorities in cases of law enforcement has shown insurmountable intolerance and failure for the investigation of and the prosecution thereof of the transgender cases of hate crime.

The federal government has been very committal in the protection of persons with disability on the issue of hate crime. Danny G., (Danny G., p 118) states that disabled persons have been the major victims of hate crimes. However, the federal government moved with speed to protect this cadre of persons. The passing of the Fair Housing Act of the 1988 and the passing of the Disabilities Act in 1990 marked a milestone in the curbing of hate crime against disabled persons. The disabled persons were formally protected within the context of civil rights.

Subsequently, the passing of amendments on the Hate Crimes Statistics Act required that the FBI collects sufficient information that was incidental in the curbing of the vice. This was to be undertaken with particular interest to the disabled persons. The information collected by the FBI went a long way in informing both the government and interested non state actors towards marshalling resources to fight the ever-increasing crime.

Bunar (Bunar, N., p 167) argues that it is very unfortunate that most of the cities worlds over have been able to put some workforce in place to counter the ever rising hate crimes cases yet these workforces have done the least to achieve this clarion calling. It is equally a set back that few states have been able to allow for the countrywide collection of data on hate crimes and therefore depriving hate crime anti-lobby groups the opportunity to have a real glimpse of the states as is on the ground.

The Congressional Digest (Congressional Digest p 31) records that the police and other criminal fighting agencies have largely failed in addressing these issues succinctly as there have been numerous violations of human rights without the due follow-up from these agencies. The police and other enforcement agencies have apparently not been able to remediate this very aptly entrenched vice in society. King et al (King et al p 312) asserts that homophobia anti-Semitism and racism have been indiscriminately entrenched in society that they seem to be eating up the societal fabric to the very core. The goings –on in New York City seems to illustrate the lack lustre with which the vice is deep rooted in the society; across the entire civility of the USA.

Cockburn (Cockburn, A., p 9) sees the attacks on mosque and synagogues as shading light on the state of the affairs about the vice in the American fabric particularly in the New York City. The overall working with real and empirical figure would have provided sufficient insight into the magnitude of the debacle.  Hate crime according to research has been seen as a phenomenon common among youth gangs but not homophobic and racist groups that are relatively organised.

The year 1990 recorded 530 bias hate crime incidents. The crimes were meted on varying recipients such as persons, businesses and religious institutes that were demonstrating animus that was non Jewish. The study showed that at the time 148 hate crime incidents were committed on the basis of prejudice of black colour, while 118 were committed on the prejudice for whites, while 47 were bigotry meted against Hispanics.  Saucier (Saucier et al p 899) states gay persons were also victims of hate crime rated at 47 per 530 bias incidents. Asian pacific islanders received 22 cases of hate crimes of the 530 hate crime cases.

The nature of the crime was relatively diverse. However most of the crimes ranged from assault to confrontations and aggravated harassments. Robbery of the victims was also a common trend with the victims being forced to surrender their belongings. Graffiti’s have been sometimes displayed with messages demonizing lesbians and gays. In retrospect, while this was ardently happening the NYC post had the least reporting for robberies, rapes, homicides and arsons that translated into arrests of the perpetrators.

Inter-group hate crimes have also become very common in New York City with groups striving for supremacy. Sherry (Sherry M., p 29) argues that inter-group hate crimes exhibit themselves in the form of racist hate crime and class hate crimes. The punishment that have been passed for these crimes seem to be doing the least to deter the ever-increasing treacherous crime because the punishment seem to be far less stringent to deter the recurrence of these crimes.

The most misconstrued believe if that the perpetrators of hate crime would not be deterred through name calling. On his part MacLean (MacLean P, p 2) says that potential murders and rapists wouldn’t desist from committing these crimes by the shear fact that they were labelled a name. by any lucid standards this results into another crime and therefore perpetuating the very crimes that are meant to be deterred. While it is assume d that indeed such acts would play a role in the deterrence prospects, by all standards, remain speculative ventures. Replete of the many incidents of hate crime fewer prosecutions have been undertaken New York State.

Danny (Danny G., p 128) states that the manner in which vaulting of hate crimes have been put into limelight impacts upon the priorities of the police is better illustrated no more than by recent occurrences that involved allegations by black youths who had been sprayed with white paint and robbed by assailant of white ascend (Barsky, R F, p 270). Most perturbing was that most of the detectives sent to the seen stayed at the scene of crime with the assumption that the crime was in fact a hoax.  This could be attributed to the much publicity incidents of this nature generate.

Overall the administrative units of must be wary not to fall prey to warmed-over polyanna-ish and platitudes that would deter the vision of the community coexisting in harmony. Racial, sexual and religious (and age, gender, handicap, and union) divisions can create deep-rooted schisms through the entire New York City and the whole United States. Though the NYPD units of Bias community initiatives and investigations, such as excoriates, would well put the City government on notice over inter-group conflicts and hatreds. The schisms is deeply embedded may just be exacerbated individuals, groups and even the media. The media has apparently been trying to redefine the hate crime based on racism, sexism and homophobia.

Conclusion on literature Review

There are area states in the united state that have not legalised the practising of lesbianism and homosexuality. However, it needs to be appreciated that it is not the responsibility of the civilians to label the criminals of this stature as such. Besides, until proven guilty one will always be innocent, hence this prerogative should be left with the court of law. Overall the meting of hate crimes on citizens who are suspected o practicing homosexuality and lesbianism is illegal altogether and should be treated as such except that the government should move speedily to have appropriate legislation that can govern such conduct.

Sherry (Sherry M., p 27) asserts that the consensus that exists on the aspect of hate crime is sufficient for the NYC administration to develop incidental legislations to this effect. The legislations developed and passed should explicitly start by give clear and concise definitions of hate crimes, their categorisation and the punishment thereto. This move according to McMahon, et al (McMahon et al p. 71) will assist the residents of New York City to not only understand the various hate crimes but know the gravity of committing such crimes.  This would scare off the would-be hate criminals from perpetuating these crimes.

The passing of legislations would not suffice towards the fighting of hate crime perpetration. The legislating arm according to Bunar (Bunar, N., p 171) should organize for civic educations so as to educate the general public on the ills and the repercussions of hate crimes. Perhaps at the very best, some of the contents of hate crime should be inculcated through the education system so that the children grow up wary of the ills and the punishment thereto of hate crimes. Subsequently, Yueh-Ting (Yueh-Ting et al p 290) asserts that this would assist the legislative arm of the administration of New York City reduce the incidences of hate crime.

Similarly, the legislations should be followed to the letter to ensure that those who perpetrate hate crimes and supplementary crimes face the full arm of legal legislations. MacLean (MacLean P., p 2) argues punishment meted upon the perpetrators should possibly be one that is at the very ceiling of the legislative provisions. This move would consequently deter both the perpetrators and the prospective perpetrators from such acts. This will consequently serve as an example for those who would be harbouring such imaginations.

The political class also have a very strategic role in the reduction and the curbing of hate crime. When carrying out political responsibilities not groups should termed as marginalised publicly but the marginalised should be treated as such during personalised discharge of duties. Danny (Danny G., p 124) argues that all groups should be treated equally in all functions so as to embrace the aspect of equality through. The marginalization of persons based on gender should be dully demonized to have this attitude imparted in the residents of New York City. Overall, the change in attitudes of the residents of New York City and the wide America will have the hate crime trend changed over a span of time without much coercion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research Design

Introduction

The area under investigation is of great concern through society. However, this doesn’t imply that the research will be done across the globe. Nevertheless, the research will be undertaken over a small scope but with a global outlook. This will ensure that the results that are attained can be applied across the globe. To ensure that data is collected with the least resistance, the researchers will obtain a letter from the administrative units within the city to avoid any suspensions.

Scope of the Study

The research will be restricted to New York City and the vicinities. The data collected will be from sample populations that are located within the city. However, though it is evident that this is a concern with a global orient, this has been ardently handled in the literature review to show the import of the research. This paper seeks to restrict itself but give the results a global orient.

In the event that there will be any persons involved in the research, then they would visitors to the facilities such as lodging and hotels within New York City. However, all the respondents will be treated as residents of the city though the information colleted from such respondent would be incidental in reflecting the global perspective of the study.

Research Methodology

Methods of Data Collection

The researcher will collect data through the use of structured questionnaires that will be issued to sampled residents of New York City. The questionnaires will be used for both interview and filling by the sample population. 30 percent of the respondents will be interviewed while the remaining 70% will be issued with questionnaires to complete. The questionnaires will then be collected for analysis and interpretation thereto.

Sampling

Research Population

The research population will comprise the entire population of the New City which is estimated at which is estimated at 8.4 million according to the 2009 statistics. While the sampling will endear to cover a larger area and coverage, because of the incidence of hate crime, most of the interviewees and respondents will be randomly drawn from these areas. The respondents will be assayed mainly from these joints to support the verification of hypothesis.

The research will use a combination of three sampling procedures to enhance the validity and the reliability of the data collected. The three methods will include random sampling, stratified sampling and cluster sampling. Having identified the scope of the research as New York City, the social joints and strategic places to be investigated will be determined through a random sampling procedure. All sample social joints population will be identified and coded. The codes will then be randomly selected to find the social joints from which the requisite data will be collected.

Once the social joints have been identified, stratified sampling technique will then be used in the determination of the persons within the social joints that would be interviewed or who will fill the questionnaires. The social joints and the strategic places will act as the sample strata. Even within the social joints, the random sampling will be applied to determine the management and the customers who would respond to the questionnaires. This will go a long way in reducing the likelihood of biases. The population identified will then be clustered to get those who would be interviewed (30%) and those to complete in the interview questionnaires (70%). The combination of this sampling method will enhance validity and reliability.

Data collection

Having identified the research sample, the research will contact interviews to those that have been sampled for interview and issue research questionnaires for those identified for the same. The respondent for the questionnaires will be given sufficiently time to have them respond fully to the questionnaires while those to be interviewed will be given a week’s prior notice to avoid ambushing the respondents or inconveniences.

Recording of Data and Presentation

The data collected will then be filled in frequency distribution table for ease of analysis. This data will then be presented on graphs for ease of interpretations and analysis thereof. The table will have aspects such as the frequency of coming across hate crime in items (second hand) bought from the market. In addition the information collected would show how many persons amongst the sample population have set eye on hate crime. If one has seen a hate crime then it shows the frequency of occurrence of hate crime. For example the respondents from social joints such as hotels would have responses such as:

Social joint Have encountered hate crime Have never encountered  hate crime
Hotel 83 25
Bars 64 13
Lodging 76 31
Strategic places 93 17

When this data is presented on graphs it will form a graph of the form.

The chart will then be used to shade sufficient light on those who have come across hate crime which will be sufficient proof of the prevalence of hate crime.

Interpretation of the Research Findings

The data collected will be interpreted for the sake of seeking applicability in the control of the scourge. If the data collected shows the correlation between the activities of the social places, the implication would be that mitigation of the menace will start with proper monitoring and surveillance of this social places where this crimes are prevalent. On the other hand, if the research does show that most of hate crime is resultant unwarranted prejudice, the government will be urged to review prejudice policies.

Testing For the Validity and Reliability of the Results

The consistency and stability of the research results will be measured through ensuring that data collected has the least bias. This will ensure that a similar research under the same circumstance yields the same results. This will constitute the reliability of the research outcomes.  Similarly, the degree of measure of the intended results will be approved if the research gathers sufficient information that would be used in the analysing the extent of the problem that is being posed by the hate crime in New York City. The results found will be restricted to New York will then be taken as an ideal minimum representation of the state in the whole of America and the world as a whole.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expected Results

The research will unravel the ideal empirical state of affairs as is on the ground concerning the issue of hate crimes. Through the research the prevalent hate crime orient will be established and the probable causative factors which will form the basis for combating the vice. The research will equally seek to establish whether indeed hate crime case are mainly concentrated in New York City as is opposed to other areas of the United States of America.

The frequency of perpetration of hate crimes will be established through research with the most common hate crimes being identified. This frequency would vary according to the areas of residence. This will only be made possible through unbiased collections of the requisite data. Subsequent, it is expected that from the research areas where hate crime is most prevalent will be earmarked and therefore ardently addressed by legislative and law enforcement agencies.

The research is expected to shade sufficient light on the major victims of hate crimes. While it has been argued through that the major victims of hate crimes in New York City are Latinos, black Americans and women, there is no empirical data o this effect.  The research will therefore gather data that will be scientific and empirical enough to be used for analytical purposes. Over the world hate crimes with domestic orient have always been treated as a preserve of women but time seems to be disapproving this myth; men have become victims of domestic crime through the world. The research will seek to establish whether men are presently the major victims of hate crime in NYC.

Some of the hate crime cases have been argued to be justifiable. The research will equally gather data on the hate crime cases that are perceived as justifiable. Subsequent, the feeling of the masses on the justifiability of the hate crime cases will sought and recorded for purposes of seeking the extend of the justifiability of this cases if there is any. Most of the human rights violation cases that accompany hate crimes will also be identified and made part of the policy guidelines that will be developed towards the curbing of the vice.

The opinion of the general public on the feasibility and comprehensiveness of the present legislations will be sought and established to assist in making any amendment if need be. Effective legislations will be developed transcend to this empirical data for combating hate crime. This legislation will be supported by the feeling of the residents and therefore enhance the feasibility of the legislation and increase the ease with which the implementation will be done.

The research will, most importantly, seek to identify the position of the residents in combating hate crime. The likelihood of hate crime spreading to other areas and states in the United States will equally be established though the collected data. Overall, this research will seek to give sufficient information that assist in the development of policy that will be incidental in the fighting of hate crime in New York City and perhaps through the entire US.

WE ACCEPT