Cross Cultural Studies

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Cross cultural studies have been very important in the analysis of human behaviour. These studies cut across a number of elements that are incidental in the livelihood of humanity. This paper seeks to review the pertinent aspects handled under cross cultural studies with specific reference to pregnancy nutrition and high risk behaviour. While the other factors such as education, economy and politics are also incidental in the personality of an individual, the paper will mention them partially. Overall, the three aspects, pregnancy, nutrition and the high risk behaviours are the main determinant of the human behaviour.


Over the years, pregnancy has been correlated with insemination and intercourse. Contraceptive use has become very common across different cultures. The fertility of persons has been largely determined by contraceptive use by the person. On the other hand Eysenck and Abdel-Khalek (Eysenck, S B.G., Abdel-Khalek, A M., 1989) argue that the wrong use of the contraceptive would well end up affecting the personality of the new born baby. Some community believe that pregnancy is only determined by God and therefore interference through contraceptive is sinful and unethical altogether.

Pregnancy in most communities is meant to bring happiness. Midwifery is equally placed central in the birthing process, with most cultures only allowing their children to be born with the aid of a mid wife at home. Ideally, Fernández and Tuset (Fernández, T., Tuset, A. M., 2007) state that pregnancy among women was not meant to make women refrain from their daily chores. Nevertheless, prenatal stages have been treated across the cultures with utmost care and consideration.  In ascertaining the vitality of the prenatal stage, women were refrained from eating certain meals. These meals were believed to be unhealthy for the pregnant woman.
On their part Eysenck and Renner (Eysenck, S B. G., Renner, W., A, 1987) argue that people who were dreaded in society were not allowed access both the pregnant woman nor to the new born baby. Besides, the woman had restrictions on her sexual activities. Physical activities for the pregnant woman was seen a paramount act for the expectant woman. The woman was expected to walk, squat, massage the belly and sit as part of the prenatal therapy. Richter and Brandstrom (Richter, J., Brandstrom, S., 1999) state that most of the labour requirements were handled by women peers and the husband was utterly locked out of the entire scene. Once the child was born, the mother and the child were confined for some time.

During the period the child and the mother were viewed as very susceptible to diseases and infections. Fernández and Tuset (Fernández, T., Tuset, A. M., 2007) argue that dietary was even more restricted during postpartum. The child and the mother were even more restricted from the consumption of certain foods. Bathing for the child and the mother were equally treated as cardinal therapies. Most importantly breast feed was very important across most cultures and any deprivation was believed to have effects on not only the child but the mother. The upbringing of the child was the prerogative of the entire community once the child had stopped being breast fed.


Food is a very important component of humanity. Across most communities the nature of food used has been the preserve of economic statue. In some communities, food has been used for good will and even as loans. This has been done with the view that the same would be returned times of need. Hence was used as one of the aspects of bonding. Across most cultures, Richter and Brandstrom (Richter, J., Brandstrom, S., 1999) find men being given more food than the children and the women. Food was equally used in the establishment of new relations with confidantes and relationships. Church (Church, 2001) states that most notable food varieties were used to signify the importance of certain occasions in society.

It has already been mentioned that food also placed a very cardinal role in the prenatal and postpartum care of the child and the mother. Consequently, food was also used in the determination of certain faiths and beliefs. Communities believed that the consumption of certain foods was a contravention of the faith. Some of the foods were associated with certain ailments just as some ailments were associated with the lack or the deficiency of certain foods. Overall the right foods were seen as promoting the health status of persons and their personality altogether.

High Risk Behaviour 

High risk behaviours formed most of the ethical teachings of most communities. Sexually transmitted diseases were viewed as a common transeptal outcome of immoral behaviour. Polygamy according to Eysenck and Renner (Eysenck, S B. G., Renner, W., A, 1987) was discouraged across most communities with the belief that it did result in such high risk health complications. Once persons were identified with certain ailments, treatments were started. A lot of premium was placed on the exercises. Individuals were advised to have some time to get gym activities for their bodies to remain healthy.

Smoking was discouraged for being associated with most of the cardiovascular diseases. Overweight complications were also associated with smoking. Across most cultures, Church, A. (Church, 2001) asserts that being fat was associated with health while being slim showed that one had poor health. Sick persons were termed as incapable of working and were supposed to seek medication. Vividly, the besides the education of a person, the upbringing played a cardinal role in the modelling of the personality as an individual. Politics was also an important determinant of the personality of individuals as it could lead to imitation and consequently lead to personality influence.