Short Essay

1. According to Marx, what is the difference between a natural self in a natural society and a natural self in a modern society?
2. What did Emma Goldman mean when she wrote that women are victims of morality?
3. Discuss the differences between Martin Luther King and Malcolm X as illustrated in Letter from Birmingham Jail and The Ballot or the Bullet.
4. What is the significance of the Hobby Lobby case as it relates to individual freedoms and the free exercise of religious beliefs?


1. Affirmative Action programs are designed to remedy years of discrimination based on race. Discuss the facts and outcomes of the Bakke case and the U. of Michigan cases. What is the significance of the Paradise case as it relates to racial quotas?
2. Women’s Rights today centers around reproductive rights. Discuss the significance of the three (3) early landmark decisions in Griswold v. CT, Roe v. Wade and Casey v. Planned Parenthood. What is the significance of the Supreme Court recognizing that a right is a “fundamental right”?

Short Essay
1. What is institutional racism? Can it be argued that the U.S. Criminal Justice system can be looked at as an example of institutional racism? Why or why not?
2. Since Roe v. Wade and Casey, various states have enacted laws that some argue takes away or limits a women’s right to choose. Discuss limitations that the courts have deemed constitutional and unconstitutional.