Is there a significant increase in the rate of Hepatitis B infection among people with diagnosed with HIV in the United States , compared to the United States reported rate for the general population?

literature review using 10 peer-reviewed

10 peer-reviewed references and cited.
Research Question : Is there a significant increase in the rate of Hepatitis B infection among people
with diagnosed with HIV in the United States , compared to the United States reported rate for the
general population?
keep it general and your population should only be those diagnosed with HIV).
Null hypothesis : The general hypothesis for this research is given the reduced immunity among people
with HIV, there is a significant increase in the rate of Hepatitis B among this group compared to the
rate for the general population.
Alternative hypothesis: There are various risk factors that are associated with the increase in the
rate of hypothesis B among people diagnosed with HIV compared to the general population and this does
not have to do with the HIV infection.

*For this module , you are asked to clearly identify the approved research question from Module 1. You
are also asked to provide a 3-page literature review using 10 peer-reviewed studies previously
conducted that specifically relate to your research question. Your literature review should discuss
previous studies that have been conducted (which directly relates to your research question),
including results that support or do not support your hypothesis. Provide a critical evaluation of
inconsistent studies. The conclusion should identify gaps in research conducted on your topic. Refer
to the articles in the Background Reading on writing a literature review
*you need to follow the questions asked, with subtitles so you organize your work.
make sure you include the identified research question, so I can follow your literature write-up.
make sure that your conclusion to include what is asked above.

 

Assignment Expectations

Length: SLP assignments should be between 2-3 pages (500-750 words) in length.

References: References must be included from scholarly sources (e.g. peer-reviewed journal articles).
Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is
critical thinking). When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it must be enclosed in
quotes. The references should be cited within the text and also listed at the end of the assignment in
the References section (APA format recommended).
Please refer to the modular assignment for further assignment expectations.

Reading required:
Edith Cowan University. Literature Review: Academic Tip Sheet. Retrieved May 26, 2012
fromhttp://intranet.ecu.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/20621/literature_review.pdf
University of California, Santa Cruz. Guidance on Literature Reviews. Retrieved May 26, 2012
fromhttp://library.ucsc.edu/help/howto/write-a-literature-review
James Bell Associates. (2008). Evaluation Brief: Conducting a Process Evaluation. Arlington, VA.
August 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2012 fromhttp://www.jbassoc.com/reports/documents/evaluation%20brief
%20-%20conducting%20a%20process%20evaluation%20-%20final%E2%80%A6.pdf
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This is the paper that I wrote but was not accepted?? See the comment(you need to follow the questions
asked, with subtitles so you organize your work.
make sure you include the identified research question, so I can follow your literature write-up.
make sure also to change your conclusion to include what is asked above.}
Literature Review
Different authors have explored Hepatitis B and HIV coinfection and the significant increase in the
rate of Hepatitis B among people diagnosed with HIV compared to the United States reported rate for
the general population. Buskin et al.,(2011) evaluated trends and risk factors for viral hepatitis
among HIV patients age 13 and older . That analysis include 29,490 participants diagnosed with HIV
.and the findings reveal that overall cohort participants were diagnosed with liver disease 8% with
chronic hepatitis B. The study also reveals that Hepatitis B infection rate rise from 7 % in 1998 to 9
% in 2004.
Another study from Spradling et al.,(2010) present another framework for examining Hepatitis B
infection rate in patients diagnosed with HIV. In this study shows that Hepatitis B virus infection
rate is substantially higher in HIV patients compared with General population. The two studies relates
to my research questions and support my hypothesis .U.S department of health (2011) stated that Viral
hepatitis is a leading cause of death and claims the lives of 12,000–15,000 Americans each year.
Current data shows that 38,000 persons were newly infected with virus and persons with HIV are
disproportionately affected by this virus so the results of these studies are again relevant to my
research question
In the United States, there is a close similarity between human immunodeficiency virus types 1 with
viral hepatitis epidemiology. The prevalence of HBV infection among individuals with HIV patients is
reported to be about 80% with the prevalence of chronic HBV infection being 10% (Tedaldi et al.
,2008). This data is, however, limited in the present day yet the data is crucial for understanding
the infection of HBV among the HIV-infected individuals. Unlike in the past, number of people becoming
infected with HIV and Hepatitis B has been rising tremendously in the United States. The Centers of
Disease Control has estimated that over 1, 178, 350 adolescents and adults are living with HIV
infection by 2008. This is the most recent national data showing the estimated prevalence of
individuals living with HIV in the U. S. The statistics indicates an increase of about 7% from the
2006 estimates (Williams et al., 2011).
Despite the increasing number of individuals becoming infected, national data on HBV infection
prevalence show contradicting data. Various health departments, through the CDC, have reported that
since 1990s to 2009, the prevalence of HIV infection has reduced (CDC, 2009). William et al., (2011)
agree with this report saying that the reduced prevalence rate is as a result of the use of infant
vaccination and vaccinations provided to adolescents and children (Williams et al., 2011). The
researchers are optimistic that with the declining trend, a major population of patients with HIV will
be protected from the hepatitis B infection. The reports by William et al., (2011) and that of CDC are
similar and disagree with my hypothesis.
The Institute of Medicine (IOM,2010) reported that the surveillance capacity for monitoring chronic
and acute viral hepatitis is limited at a local and state level as a result of these reports not being
submitted by the state. This means that the actual prevalence of HBV among HIV patients is not
reflected with the current national data. This report by IOM, therefore, agrees with my hypothesis and
this leads to variable and incomplete data.
Iser & Lewin(2009) looked at the effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy(HAART) on the life
expectancy of those infected with HIV. However, there is no much research done to establish the
effects of HAART on the transmission of HBV. Additionally, the effects of HBV have continued to become
apparent among the population of those infected with HIV. There is disagreement in research on the
impact of HIV on the disease infection and progression of HBV .
Isolated anti-HBc is evidence in individuals infected with HIV as a serological pattern. However, the
role of isolated anti-HBc remains a debatable issue, and research has not yet found any relationship
between it and liver disease. Among those infected with HIV and have the isolated anti-HBc reactivity,
the development of latent hepatitis B has been found to range from a minor percentage to as high as 89
percent (Gaglio, et al 2007).
The incident HBV infection data for HIV -infected individuals is limited yet this data could have
helped in the provision of opportunities on HBV infection prevention among HIV-infected individuals.
One of the studies has reported that the acute HBV infection incidences is as large as 12.2 cases in
1000 persons and the prevalence rate being 7.8% (Kellerman et al., 2003). This study utilizes a window
of observation from 1998 to 2001 and did not provide the proportion of HBV infection of becoming
chronic and failure to be reported (Kim, 2009). This means that the HBV infection prevalence in the
United States is underestimated. The available national data indicate and an overall decrease of HB
infection incidences in the overall population within the past two decades (CDC, 2008).

 

References
Buskin, S. E., Barash, E. A., Scott, J. D., Aboulafia, D. M., & Wood, R. W. (2011). Hepatitis B and C
infection and liver disease trends among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. World
journal of gastroenterology: WJG, 17(14), 1807.
Centers of diseases control and prevention (2010). Viral Hepatitis Statistics & Surveillance On
February 15th, 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Statistics/index.htm
Chun, H. M., Fieberg, A. M., Hullsiek, K., Lifson, A. R., Crum-Cianflone, N. F., Weintrob, A. C., &
… Landrum, M. L. (2010). Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a US Cohort of HIV-Infected
Individuals during the Past 20 Years.Clinical Infectious Diseases, 50(3), 426-436. doi:10.1086/649885

 

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