Meaningful_Work_and_Organizational_Outcomes_Results Chapter

Psy 510/610 Structural Equation Modeling 1
Testing Mediation with Regression Analysis
Mediation is a hypothesized causal chain in which one variable affects a second variable that, in turn,
affects a third variable. The intervening variable, M, is the mediator. It “mediates” the relationship
between a predictor, X, and an outcome. Graphically, mediation can be depicted in the following way:
a b
Paths a and b are called direct effects. The mediational effect, in which X leads to Y through M, is
called the
indirect effect. The indirect effect represents the portion of the relationship between X and Y
that is mediated by M.
Testing for mediation
Baron and Kenny (1986) proposed a four step approach in which several regression analyses are
conducted and significance of the coefficients is examined at each step. Take a look at the diagram
below to follow the description (note that
c’ could also be called a direct effect).
a b

Analysis Visual Depiction
Step 1 Conduct a simple regression analysis with X predicting Y to test
for path
c alone, Y B B X e = + + 0 1
Step 2 Conduct a simple regression analysis with X predicting M to test
for path
a, M B B X e = + + 0 1 .
Step 3 Conduct a simple regression analysis with M predicting Y to test
the significance of path
b alone, Y B B M e = + + 0 1 .
Step 4 Conduct a multiple regression analysis with X and M predicting
Y B B X B M e = + + + 0 1 2

The purpose of Steps 1-3 is to establish that zero-order relationships among the variables exist. If one
or more of these relationships are nonsignificant, researchers usually conclude that mediation is not
possible or likely (although this is not always true; see MacKinnon, Fairchild, & Fritz, 2007).
Assuming there are significant relationships from Steps 1 through 3, one proceeds to Step 4. In the
Step 4 model, some form of mediation is supported if the effect of M (path
b) remains significant after
controlling for X. If X is no longer significant when M is controlled, the finding supports
full mediation.
If X is still significant (i.e., both X and M both significantly predict Y), the finding supports
Calculating the indirect effect
The above four-step approach is the general approach many researchers use. There are potential
problems with this approach, however. One problem is that we do not ever really test the significance
of the indirect pathway—that X affects Y through the compound pathway of
a and b. A second
problem is that the Barron and Kenny approach tends to miss some true mediation effects (Type II
errors; MacKinnon et al., 2007). An alternative, and preferable approach, is to calculate the indirect
effect and test it for significance. The regression coefficient for the indirect effect represents the
change in Y for every unit change in X that is mediated by M. There are two ways to estimate the
indirect coefficient. Judd and Kenny (1981) suggested computing the difference between two
regression coefficients. To do this, two regressions are required.

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Psy 510/610 Structural Equation Modeling 2

Judd & Kenny Difference of Coefficients Approach
Analysis Visual Depiction
Model 1 Y B B X B M e = + + + 0 1 2 X M Y
Model 2 Y B BX e = + + 0 X Y

The approach involves subtracting the partial regression coefficient obtained in Model 1, B1 from the
simple regression coefficient obtained from Model 2,
B. Note that both represent the effect of X on Y
but that
B is the zero-order coefficient from the simple regression and B1 is the partial regression
coefficient from a multiple regression. The indirect effect is the difference between these two
B B B indirect = – 1.
An equivalent approach calculates the indirect effect by multiplying two regression coefficients (Sobel,
1982). The two coefficients are obtained from two regression models.

Sobel Product of Coefficients Approach
Analysis Visual Depiction
Model 1 Y B B X B M e = + + + 0 1 2 X M Y
Model 2 M B BX e = + + 0 X a M

Notice that Model 2 is a different model from the one used in the difference approach. In the Sobel
approach, Model 2 involves the relationship between X and M. A product is formed by multiplying two
coefficients together, the partial regression effect for M predicting Y,
B2, and the simple coefficient for
X predicting M,
B B B indirect = ( 2 )( )
As it turns out, the Kenny and Judd difference of coefficients approach and the Sobel product of
coefficients approach yield identical values for the indirect effect (MacKinnon, Warsi, & Dwyer, 1995).
Note: regardless of the approach you use (i.e., difference or product) be sure to use
coefficients if you do the computations yourself.
Statistical tests of the indirect effect
Once the regression coefficient for the indirect effect is calculated, it needs to be tested for
significance. There has been considerable controversy about the best way to estimate the standard
error used in the significance test, however. There are quite a few approaches to calculation of
standard errors. A paper by MacKinnon, Lockwood, Hoffman, West, and Sheets (2002) gives a
thorough review and comparison of the approaches (see also MacKinnon, 2008; Fritz, Taylor, &
MacKinnon, 2012). This paper reports the results from a Monte Carlo study of a variety of methods
for testing the significance of indirect effects and examined the Type I and Type II error rates of each.
Although most of the approaches controlled Type I errors well, they did differ on statistical power. Two
approaches developed by MacKinnon, using tailor-made statistics,
P and z’, appear to have the
highest power. Significance tables for these two approaches, which need to be conducted by hand,
are available through MacKinnon’s website (see link below). An alternative approach proposed by

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Psy 510/610 Structural Equation Modeling 3
Shrout and Bolger (2002) uses bootstrapping for standard errors and seems to have greater power in
small samples. Preacher and Hayes (2004; Hayes, 2013) have developed macros that simplify the
use of this approach (see link below) for SPSS and SAS. Tingley (Tingley, Yamamoto, Hirose, Keele,
& Imai, 2014) have a mediation package for R (see link below). Although bias-corrected bootstrap
(adjustments to the bootstrap coefficient estimate and/or confidence limits based on the distribution of
the bootstrap estimates) confidence limits have often been recommended, some work suggests they
have higher Type I error than standard percentile bootstrap confidence limits (Fritz et al., 2012).
Structural equation modeling (SEM, also called covariance structure analysis) is designed, in part, to
test these more complicated models in a single analysis instead of testing separate regression
analyses. Some SEM software packages now offer indirect effect tests using one of the above
approaches for determining significance. In addition, the SEM analysis approach provides model fit
information that provides information about consistency of the hypothesized mediational model to the
data. Measurement error is a potential concern in mediation testing because of attenuation of
relationships and the SEM approach can address this problem by removing measurement error from
the estimation of the relationships among the variables. I will save more detail on this topic for another
course, however.
Online resources
Dave McKinnon’s website on mediation analysis:
David Kenny also has a webpage on mediation:
Preacher and Hays’ bootstrap and Sobel macros:
Mediation package in R:
References and Further Reading
Judd, C.M. & Kenny, D.A. (1981). Process Analysis: Estimating mediation in treatment evaluations. Evaluation Review, 5(5), 602-619.
Fritz, M. S., Taylor, A. B., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2012). Explanation of two anomalous results in statistical mediation analysis.
Behavioral Research, 47
, 61-87.
Goodman, L. A. (1960). On the exact variance of products.
Journal of the American Statistical Association, 55, 708-713.
Hayes, A. F. (2013).
Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. New York: The Guilford Press.
Hoyle, R. H., & Kenny, D. A. (1999). Statistical power and tests of mediation. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.),
Statistical strategies for small
sample research
. Newbury Park: Sage.
MacKinnon, D.P. (2008).
Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
MacKinnon, D.P. & Dwyer, J.H. (1993). Estimating mediated effects in prevention studies.
Evaluation Review, 17(2), 144-158.
MacKinnon, D.P., Fairchild, A.J., & Fritz, M.S. (2007). Mediation analysis.
Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593-614.
MacKinnon, D.P., Lockwood, C.M., Hoffman, J.M., West, S.G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other
intervening variable effects.
Psychological Methods, 7, 83-104.
Preacher, K.J., & Hayes, A.F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models.
Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717-731.
Shrout, P.E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations.
Psychological Methods, 7, 422-445.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.),
Methodology 1982
(pp. 290-312). Washington DC: American Sociological Association.
Tingley, D., Yamamoto, T., Hirose, K., Keele, L., & Imai, K. (2014).
Mediation: R package for causal mediation analysis. Retrieved from