Respiratory SystemAnswers for this assignment may be obtained from assigned reading materials and/or internet searches.

Note: When submitting assignments, please submit the case and questions with your answers and remember to use complete sentences when responding to questions.

Respiratory Case Study – Case I

A 17-year-old student has experienced reversible, periodic attacks of chest tightness with coughing, wheezing, and hyperpnea. She states that expiration is more difficult than inspiration. She is most comfortable sitting forward with arms leaning on some support. X-rays revealed mild overinflation of the chest. Results from laboratory and pulmonary function tests are as follows:

Frequency 20 breaths/min
Vital capacity (VC) 2.9 L
FEV1.0 1.4 L
FEV1.0/FVC 56%
Functional residual capacity (FRC) 3.89 L
Total lung capacity (TLC) 6.82 L
PaO2 70 mm Hg
PaCO2 26 mm Hg
Pulse 108 b/min
BP 120/76 mm Hg

Intermittent use of a bronchial smooth muscle dilator (1:1000 epinephrine by nebulizer) for several days caused marked improvement, resulting in the following laboratory and pulmonary function tests:

VC 4.15 L
FEV1.0 3.1 L
FEV1.0/FVC >75%
FRC 3.7 L
TLC 5.96L
PaO2 89 mm Hg
PaCO2 38 mm Hg
Pulse 129 b/mi
BP 122/78 mm Hg

What is the disorder of this 17-year-old student?
Is this primarily a restrictive or an obstructive disorder? Why?
Write the formula for determining residual volume (RV).
Determine the residual volume (RV) before and after the use of the bronchodilator (3.0 points).
RV before using the bronchodilator:
RV after using the bronchodilator:
Why is expiration more difficult than inspiration in this person?
Why does the bronchodilator exaggerate the tachycardia?
What causes the hypoxemia and the hypocapnemia in this person?
A beta2-adrenergic agent was prescribed for further use because it has less cardiostimulatory (beta1) effect. Based on your knowledge of beta1 and beta2 receptors, why is this a good suggestion?
An anticholinergic agent was also suggested as a possible nebulizer agent. How might this help the breathing problem?
Respiratory Case Study – Case II

A 150 lb., 62-year-old man had a chronic productive cough, exertional dyspnea, mild cyanosis, and marked slowing of forced expiration. His pulmonary function and laboratory tests follow:

Frequency 16 breaths/min
Alveolar ventilation 4.2 L/min
Vital capacity (VC) 2.2 L
Functional residual capacity (FRC) 4.0 L
Total lung capacity (TLC) 5.2 L
Maximum inspiratory flow rate 250 L/min
Maximum expiratory flow rate 20 L/min
PaO2 62 mm Hg
PaCO2 39 mm Hg

Pulmonary function tests after bronchodilator therapy:

Frequency 16 breaths/min
Alveolar ventilation 4.35 L/min
VC 2.4 L
FRC 4.0 L
TLC 5.2 L
Maximum inspiratory flow rate 250 L/min
Maximum expiratory flow rate 23 L/min
PaO2 62 mm Hg
PaCO2 38 mm Hg

What is the disorder of this 62-year-old man?
Is this primarily a restrictive or an obstructive disorder?
Why is the bronchodilator therapy ineffective in this man?
What causes the hypoxemia?
Calculate the residual volume (RV) for this person before and after the bronchodilator therapy.
What is the cause of this altered RV?
Calculate the tidal volume (TV) for this person before and after the bronchodilator therapy.
Is each TV normal or altered?
Calculate the minute ventilation (MV) for this person before and after the bronchodilator therapy.
Is each MV normal or altered?

Prostate Cancer Phase 2 Critical Article

Topic: prostate cancer phase 2 critical article
In this assignment you have been asked to complete a Phase II research proposal on a potential cancer therapy (details described in the supplied Phase I paper) using the research proposal template provide for you. The cancers chosen are the ones covered in your lectures.

The Phase I paper will be allocated to you. You will also assess 2 of your peers research proposals that will be on the same Phase I clinical trial.

Lesson 8 Environmental Autobiography Overview

Topic: Lesson 8 Environmental Autobiography
In this assignment, you will be using information from the readings, DVDs, and your past assignments (specifically, your short paragraphs on of your own personal values and views toward nature and natural landscapes developed in each lesson) to develop your own “Environmental Autobiography.” (I will upload the readings and some of my old assignments later. )
This assignment helps you achieve the following lesson objective:
To identify images of important landscapes (e.g., parks, playgrounds, etc.) in one’s past.
To further develop your own values toward nature/landscapes.
To write an “Environmental Autobiography”.
This lesson requires you to prepare an “Environmental Autobiography.”
All of us carry the images and values of childhood landscapes; those environments we encountered, smelled, listened to, explored, and valued during our younger years. The images of these environments affect us in numerous and sometimes subtle ways. Understanding one’s own environmental history provides insight to one’s current environmental values and ideal landscapes. The memorable landscapes of childhood and youth may directly shape adult values by influencing one’s interpretation of current environments.
Identify one or two outdoor environments from your childhood and youth (between birth and 17 years of age) that are important to your own value system and/or are associated with fond memories. Integrating ideas from at least two different class readings, write an essay depicting important and valued meanings you associate with environments of your past. Briefly identify the environment in both objective (e.g., Where is it? What did you do there?) and subjective (e.g., How did you feel in it?) terms. The major portion of the essay should be an explanation of your personal environmental meanings that applies conceptual material from class.
Submission Requirements
In this assignment, you are required to develop an “Environmental Autobiography” which allows you the opportunity to express your own personal views and values toward nature and natural landscapes.
The paper should include a cover page. If citations are used, they should be given to all references used throughout the text (APA format). Quotations taken from other sources should be clearly designated with the use of quotation marks. All papers should be double spaced, 12 point font (Calibri, Arial, Garamond or Times New Roman) with 1 inch margins. The text of the paper should be at least 5 pages and no more than 7 pages in length excluding the cover page and reference page.
This assignment is worth 100 points.

epidemiology discussion 6

Topic: epidemiology discussion 6Please write a 200-300 word response to the following discussion question. I expect your response to reflect critical thought based on information from the textbook and from one additional source. Whenever possible, try to relate the discussion question to your own experiences. Be sure to appropriately cite and list your references.

Required Textbooks:
Gordis, L. (2014). Epidemiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN: 978-1-4557-3733-8 Heymann, D.L. (Ed.) (2015). Control of Communicable Diseases Manual (20th ed.). Washington D.C.: American Public Health Association. ISBN: 978-0-8755-3018-5
Discussion Question: What are life tables and what purpose do they serve? Describe a situation where a life table would be useful.