Write a 250 words essay in APA format based on the definition of epidemiology, the evolution of epidemiology as liberal art, ethics and philosophy of epidemiology

Marine Biology

Marine Biology (I need a pre-proposal). 

Pre-Proposal Submissions
Persons with an interest in obtaining support for their research should review the Marine Mammals and Biology (MMB) program topics and goals to evaluate the potential overlap between ONR MMB program goals and areas of interest and their research. The next step in assessing the potential for support is to submit a brief (two- to three-page) pre-proposal (also referred to sometimes as a planning letter or white paper) to the program. The pre-proposal is intended to be an informal document submitted to the program that briefly describes the rationale and nature of the work to be proposed, the approach to addressing questions posed and estimates for the research costs.

Pre-proposals should:

Clearly and concisely describe the nature and objectives of the work proposed.
Indicate the amount of time needed to conduct the research.

Include a short one- to two-page CV for each principal investigator (PI).

Antimicrobial Agents

Week 8 Assignment
Application: Antimicrobial Agents

Antimicrobial agents are essential components in the treatment of various bacterial infections as they help to kill or prevent the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and protozoans. Prior to the discovery of antimicrobial agents, treatment options for patients with bacterial infections were limited. For many patients, treatment often resulted in the amputation of limbs or even death. Today, treatment options for bacterial infections typically have a more positive prognosis. Due to the various types of infections presented in patients, it is essential to be able to identify the underlying cause of the infection—whether bacterial or viral—before recommending drug treatments. This will help you identify whether or not an antimicrobial agent would be appropriate and which specific agent would target the infection. In this Assignment, you consider the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents for infections.

To prepare:

•Review this week’s media presentation on principles of antimicrobial therapy, as well as Chapter 8 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text.
•Consider the categories of antimicrobial agents.
•Think about differences between viral and bacterial infections.
•Reflect on why proper identification of the infection is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent.

To complete:

Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
•Describe the categories of antimicrobial agents.
•Describe differences between viral and bacterial infections.
•Explain why proper identification of viral and bacterial infections is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent.

Diseases caused by structural rearrangement of chromosomes have been called “genomic disorders”. Discuss how these structural rearrangements arise, giving examples.

Consider the title of your essay carefully to ensure you write about the subject from the appropriate angle and at a suitable depth. The essay deals with a current topic in molecular genetics so, where appropriate, you should make an effort to include recent evidence and ideas.

For general guidance on essay writing have a look at the guides provided by Learning Development in the section marked Writing Skills. There is a web link to Learning Development on the MSc Blackboard site in Study Information. Your use of English grammar should be appropriate and your spelling accurate. It can be helpful to use the spelling and grammar tool in Word to check your essay. Remember that your use of English may affect the mark awarded for your essay.

To ensure your essay has a clear structure make a plan before you begin writing. It is sensible to start with an introduction in which you can set out the question/problem/ topic and how you are going to address it. In your essay, aim to present a logical progression of explanations or arguments with references, followed by your own conclusions.

You can use figures to illustrate specific points and it is best to draw these yourself. If you do base a figure on a published one then you should indicate that it is “adapted from…” or “redrawn from…”. Write a legend that allows the reader to understand the essential point of the figure. Do not copy legends.

Your statements, arguments, hypotheses and any relevant experimental data should be supported by reference to the relevant published material (not web sites). A full reference list must be given at the end of the essay. Remember that citing a reference as a source of information does not mean you can copy the words of that source; it is simply a way of directing the reader to your sources of information. It is not appropriate in scientific writing to directly quote from your sources of information, so using quotation marks as way of avoiding plagiarism will result in your essay being given a lower mark.
References should be cited in the text by author name and year of publication. You should then provide full details of your references in alphabetical order in a reference list at the end of your essay

Biology Paraphrasing

This is Methodology for proposal , I need paraphrasing for this – no references need or any thing . Just professional paraphrasing from expert – PLEASE – paraphrasing from someone who know the filed. It is Grad level- not a high school nor undergrads Do paraphrasing as it appears in the file 1- Paraphrase it…… 2- paraphrase it …… each point by it self

infection science

What is the most likely microorganism that is responsible for the symptome (at genus level)?
Discuss your reasons for your identificaiton of this specific case.
Discuss the basis of each of the above biochemical tests.
Explain how would you destroy microorganisms in laboratory after you finish working with them.
Clear, logical, unambiguous presentation with +10% of the appropriate length.

Correct writing of bacterial names

Evidence of originality, synthesis and analysis
Evidence of a wide, up to date and relevant reading and use of primary references

Differences between small molecule therapies and biologics

Compare and contrast the differences between small molecule therapies and biologics (e.g. peptides/proteins, antibodies, cytokines, enzymes).
In addition to advantages and disadvantages of each, some items/issues to discuss may include physical properties (and consequences), administration, manufacturing, selectivity, and preclinical and clinical development design.
Google, Wikipedia, Online newspaper articles are not considered legitimate references. DO NOT just quote from abstract of scholarly article. Include quotes from published FDA guidelines and scientific journals.

Biopsychosocial Assessment of Endometriosis-Associated Pain

Thesis Title: Biopsychosocial Assessment of Endometriosis-Associated Pain
Women (18-49 years) with and without Endometriosis are assessed for the biological and psychosocial contributors to chronic pelvic pain.
The biological aspects are assessed with neuro-psychophysical testing. The aim is to build a somatosensory profile detailing the changes in sensory function in women with and without endometriosis.
The psychophysical aspects are assessed with self-reported instruments. These questionnaires detail the physical, emotional, cognitive and self-belief contributions to pain severity in women with and without endometriosis.
The women with endometriosis are further assessed for the influence their emotions, cognitions and self-belief have on the functional abnormalities observed in their somatosensory profile and the severity of their pain.

Chapter 7 Results: Psychosocial aspects of Chronic Endometriosis-Associated Pain
This study only focusses on women; 15-49 years, suffering from chronic pelvic pain associated with endometriosis; may also experience dysmenorrhea (painful periods).
Please include studies that investigated the bio-psychosocial aspects of chronic pain in relation to the points outlined above; namely female and pelvic pain.
Please include references from last 5 years to keep it contemporary.
More references than provided here will be required.
Thank you.
Section 7A and 7B; need 5 pages in total, please;
Needs to be a story line that runs through all the section and sub-sections, even though they each focus on a different aspect of the story:
The overall story is that chronic pain is the result of the dynamic contribution of biological and psychosocial factors. Modulation of the psychosocial factors can influence the biological factors. Those with better psychosocial functioning have less pain severity.

Note: biological contributors: underlying disease, general physical functioning, activity interference
Psychosocial contributors: emotional, psychological and cognitive behaviour
Section 7A Chronic Pain and Emotion; need 2.5 pages in total for this section; including the sub-sections, below
Chronic pain is often accompanied by psychological and emotional distress.
Wesselmann U et al 1998; Uterine inflammation as a noxious visceral stimulus: behavioural characterization in the rat
Anxiety; need 0.75 page
Finding from this study:
Women with endometriosis experience anxiety levels similar to those age-matched individuals experiencing chronic pain and higher than the non-endometriosis women and general population.
References should reflect this finding.
Keogh E and Mansoor L 2001; Investigating the effects of anxiety sensitivity and coping on the perception of cold pressor pain in healthy women
McCracken LM and Gross RT 1998; The role of pain-related anxiety reduction in the outcome of multidisciplinary treatment for low back pain
BoersmaK and Linton SJ 2006; Psychological processes underlying the development of a chronic pain problem
Depression; need 0.75 page
Finding from this study:
Women with endometriosis experience depression at a similar severity as a chronic pain population and higher than the non-endometriosis women and general population.
References should reflect this finding.
Von Korff M and Simon G 1996;The relationship between pain and depression
Stress; need 0.75 page
Finding from this study:
Women with endometriosis experience stress at a similar severity as a chronic pain population and higher than the non-endometriosis women and general population.

Section7B: Chronic Pain, Cognitions and Beliefs; need 2.5 pages in total
Includes: Self-belief, active coping skills and catastrophising thoughts
Finding from this study:
The younger EEs (21-30 years) reported their belief in being able to carry on with their life despite the pain as similar to the equivalently-aged chronic pain population. Yet, additional age (31-40 years) appeared to significantly increase women’s belief that they could cope with their pain as compared with their age-matched chronic pain counterparts.
Women with endometriosis experienced catastrophising thoughts equal to the chronic pain population. Moreover, the younger women (21-30 years) with endometriosis employed about the same level of active coping thoughts as those with chronic pain. Yet, the older women with endometriosis (31-40 years), in spite of their catastrophising thoughts, employed significantly higher levels of coping cognitions, compared with the general chronic pain population.
Overall, those with better self-belief and active coping thoughts experience less pain and have greater engagement with all aspects of their life

 cell receptor binding modes and the boundary between self/non-self

Please flow the provided file precisely, please focus on
-tcr binding modes autoimmunity.
-Who do T cells fail at times?
-The Conventional Topology of TCR Binding to Peptide/MHC Complexes

Please use the links that i have uploaded, as i have already used them in my Annotated bibliography which is part of this dissertation.
Please could you also provide the flowing as urgent?

1) the question/topic you will address in the paper: the subject matter,
2) the objectives of the paper: the question/s you will attempt to answer and/or the gap/s
in knowledge you aim to fill, and
3) the way in which you intend to address the objectives: the arguments you intend to
make and the evidence you will use to support these.