What will kill you first: smoking, a high fat diet or alcohol abuse?”

What will kill you first: smoking, a high fat diet or alcohol abuse?”

The essay or review article should be structured to include information on the following areas:

General Background/Introduction: Setting the scene
May include;
• Overview of key/common health-related risk factors/mechanisms of disease
• Epidemiology/prevalence of health issues related to smoking, a high fat diet and alcohol-abuse
• Establish the whole patient context (ie consider interactions between risk factors)

Pathophysiology and pathology: Major content (can be more than one section)
May include;
• Description of the impact smoking, a high fat diet and/or alcohol-abuse has on therelevant body system/s
• Mechanisms responsible for the development of pathology/pathophysiology

• Key manifestations/clinical characteristics of major pathologies/pathophysiologies

• Critical review/comparison of the overall impact each risk factor has on thedevelopment of pathology/pathophysiology


Pre-hospital/Medical Management: Major content (can be more than one section)
May include;

• Discussion of common conditions encountered by paramedics that result from, orare influenced by smoking, a high fat diet and alcohol-abuse and their diagnosis
• Current pre-hospital management practices/therapies for these risk-factor relatedconditions – analysis of benefits and limitations
• Common complications associated with these conditions that have significantimpact on patient morbidity/mortality
• Critical review/comparison of the overall impact each risk factor has onmorbidity/mortality

Summary and Conclusions: Discussion section

• Draw your conclusion and support your argument with a concise summary of keypoints/issues discussed
• Relate points/issues to the overall patient context (ie consider interactions)
• No development of new issues/ideas or repetition of information –conclusionsmade should be supported by the information provided in the body of the essay (ieyou can refer to it, but don’t repeat the detail)
Please use Tables and figures as a good way of providing detailed information without using lots of words. Tables and figures don’t add to the word count.

3000 word essay written to conform to the Content Plan (with suggested improvements as provided by your assessor).I have uploaded the Content Plan

Literature Searching
It is expected that most of the information you use for this assignment will come from journal articles. It is recommended you find the journal articles you need by searching the United States National Library of Medicine database using the PubMed search engine.
The link to PubMed is:
Before you start using PubMed, it is strongly recommended you visit the PubMed Tutorial page:


To Get You Started – here are some suggested searches:
High fat diet and metabolic syndrome and mortality
Smoking effects and “pulmonary disease” and mortality ”
Alcohol consumption” and mortality

Handy Hints:
• putting the search items between “parenthesis” will limit the search i.e. “pulmonary disease” and “alcohol consumption”
• check out the “review” and “free full text” tabs on the right hand side of the resultspage
• the “review” tab will list those articles identified as reviews – these are goodstarting pointso the “free full text” tab will list those articles you can link to from PubMed andobtain for free
• search the University Library e-catalogue for articles you cannot get free fromPubMed – if the Uni subscribes to the journal you can generally obtain the article
• search results can be down loaded for importing into EndNote

Please see the Marking Rubrics below
And table contents other attached.
Assessable items Comments Max
Grade Your
• Uses evidence to set the correct context (epidemiology, mechanisms of disease)
• Accurately describes impact of each risk factor and contextualises their role in pathology/pathophysiology
• Comprehensively describes pathophysiology/pathology involved and underlying mechanisms responsible
• Identifies key clinical manifestations and describes relevant clinical characteristics and diagnosis of risk-factor related conditions encountered in thepre-hospital setting
• Accurately describes current management practices and/or therapies and provides an informed discussion of their benefits and limitations
• Discusses common complications associated with risk-factor related conditions that impact patient morbidity/mortality
• Critically reviews information and correctly identifies knowledge gaps or areas of debate (can be focussed around a specific clinical aspect linked to a risk-factor)
• Provides a succinct summary section drawing a clear conclusion and highlighting 2-3 key points supporting the conclusion (based on evidence presented)
• Higher marks will be awarded for a comprehensive exploration of the topic, with consistently sound critical evaluation of concepts and personal synthesis of issues.
• Develops a sound and informative table of contents
• Main points clearly identified, discussed in a logical and sequential manner and directly related to the table of contents
• Paragraphs and sentences are well structured and linked in terms of context and information content. Appropriate sentence length used with clear concept development and supporting detail provided with minimal repetition
• Clear development of themes and/or discussion “arguments” based on critical review of the literature
• Diagrams and figures used effectively to support text
• Well set out; clear, easy to read style.
• Grammatical and spelling accuracy.
• Within 10% of word limit

• Researched material is well synthesised into content, cited correctly and accurate details provided in a reference list conforming to Author-Date (Harvard) System.
• Extensive use of primary references supporting critical evaluation of concepts and personal synthesis of issues, areas of debate; limited use of text books (no web sites)
• Clear distillation of referenced material into own words, NO evidence of plagiarism


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