Book: Ethics in Practice. An Anthology 4th edition by Hugh Lafollette
Purpose is to discuss the ideas of at least one author from the text. Discussion is to include at least one paragraph explaining their ideas and at least another showing how those ideas relate to the example you have chosen.
The introduction must inform the reader of the topic you will address, mention any sources you plan to draw from in making your argument (such as the specific example of the issue you are writing about and the authors whose ideas you will discuss), and indicate the specific point the essay is intended to support (also known as your “thesis”). It is often good to open with a general statement of an important problem, a rhetorical question, or some sort of dramatic flourish which will attract your reader’s interest before narrowing in on the specifics of the paper.
ii. The “body” of your essay should present the relevant details of the example you are using immediately after the introduction. The example may be real or fictional (e.g. taken from a film), but it cannot be a hypothetical of your own invention. The point is that in principle, respect for your reader dictates that you should use an example which leaves them the option of fact-checking your details instead of having to depend on you for their accuracy. In some cases, if the author makes reference to a real case, further research on (and presentation of) the details of that case may suffice, but merely mentioning an example from the text will not suffice. To demonstrate a strong understanding of the ideas, you need to show how they apply to an example that is not already explained to you.
iii. Next, present the ideas of the author which you will use to analyze the example. Do so in enough detail to show you have understood those ideas well. This means demonstrating that you understand not only the conclusion(s) the author supports, but also his/her reasons for doing so.
iv. Show how those ideas apply to your example, indicating what you believe the author would have to say about it and why. The point here is that I want to see whether you can correctly show the author’s ideas apply in cases where that application is not already explained to you.
v. Offer your reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with what you presented in step iv. (If you are only writing about one author, this step might turn out to be your conclusion.)
vi. If you are discussing a second author, step iii must be repeated with regard to their ideas as well.
vii. If you are discussing a second author, step iv must also be repeated. Note: if you plan to support one and oppose the other, discuss the one you oppose first.
viii. If you are discussing a second author, step iv must also be repeated. (If you are discussing two authors, this step may turn out to be your conclusion.)
ix. If you have additional observations of your own to add, or broader claims to make regarding the point you have shown in this paper, place them in the final paragraph, which will then be your conclusion. If you have personal experiences to relate, which shed light on your reasons for thinking as you do, this would be the best place to present them(this may mean your concluding section turns out to be more than just one paragraph).