Philosophy book questions

No essay. Questions just need to be answered in a few sentences. Please leave questions/answers numbered.

Chapter 7
1. Explain the role hedonistic thinking played in the
origins of Stoicism.
2. How did Cynicism influence Stoicism? Be specific.
3. What is the relationship of Socrates to Cynicism
and Stoicism?
4. How are the Logos and fate related in Stoicism?
5. Identify and discuss possible problems with the
Stoic notion of fate.

Chapter 8
1. Compare and contrast the classical worldview with
the medieval.
2. What basic conditions led to the development of
Christian philosophy? Where did the need for
interpretation come from?
3. In your own words, describe the chief characteristics
of Scholastic scholarship.
4. In what ways is the medieval scholar the forerunner
of the modern professor?
5. Which of the Five Ways do you think is the
weakest? Explain why.

Soccio, Douglas J. (2012-01-01). Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy (Page 244). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

Chapter 9
1. What was Descartes’s proposal, and how did his
Scholastic education influence it?
2. Give a brief summary of the role methodic doubt
plays in Descartes’s overall eff ort to discover certain
knowledge.
3. How is skepticism important to Cartesian philosophy?
4. What is the evil genius, and what is its significance
to the Cartesian Genesis?
5. Can the Evil Genius refute the cogito? Is there any
way to “refute” the cogito?

Soccio, Douglas J. (2012-01-01). Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy (Page 280). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

Chapter 10
1. Outline the development of the “epistemological turn”
from Descartes through Locke and Berkeley to Hume.
2. In your own words, reconstruct the basic empirical
critique of rationalism.
3. What is the tabula rasa? What is its significance to
Locke’s empiricism?
4. Explain the philosophical significance of the
question “Does a tree falling in the forest make a
sound if no one is there to hear it?” Then answer it
as Berkeley would.
5. Why is the distinction between impressions and
ideas important to Hume’s philosophy?

Soccio, Douglas J. (2012-01-01). Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy (Page 312). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

Chapter 11

1. Why did Kant think it necessary to posit the
existence of the noumenal world?
2. How does Kant answer Hume’s bundle theory of the
self? Do you think he is successful?
3. Describe the moral dimension as Kant
understood it.
4. Explain the reasoning behind Kant’s eff orts to make
morality a matter of motives, not consequences.
5. What is a good will, according to Kant, and why
does he claim that the only thing good in itself is a
good will?

Soccio, Douglas J. (2012-01-01). Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy (Page 342). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

Chapter 12
1. Identify and discuss some of the social and
economic factors that influenced Bentham’s
development of simple utilitarianism.
2. What is “the Malthusian universe”?
3. Apply Bentham’s hedonic calculus to a problem
in your own life. Does doing so help you
deal with it in a “scientific” way—or does it
complicate the problem? If it complicates things,
is this due to some flaw in the calculus or to its
novelty?
4. What role does psychological egoism play in
Bentham’s simple utilitarianism?
5. Did Bentham include animals in the moral domain?
Why or why not?

Soccio, Douglas J. (2012-01-01). Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy (Page 368). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

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