Biology

 

Biology
Part ​ ​1:
Fresh ​ ​out ​ ​of ​ ​college ​ ​with ​ ​your ​ ​degree ​ ​in ​ ​Microbiology, ​ ​you​ ​have ​ ​landed ​ ​your ​ ​‘first ​ ​real ​ ​job’ ​ ​as ​ ​a
scientist ​ ​with ​ ​“DuPunt”, ​ ​a ​ ​company ​ ​that ​ ​specializes ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​development ​ ​and ​ ​production ​ ​of
polyurethane ​ ​derivatives ​ ​(specialized ​ ​‘plastics’). ​ ​​ ​Dupunt ​ ​worked ​ ​with ​ ​NASA ​ ​to ​ ​design ​ ​the
sample ​ ​return ​ ​vehicle ​ ​(SRV) ​ ​that ​ ​was ​ ​responsible ​ ​for ​ ​the ​ ​return ​ ​of ​ ​Martian ​ ​soil ​ ​samples,
described ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​journal ​ ​article ​ ​by​ ​Kenneth ​ ​Nealson ​ ​(Ann ​ ​N ​ ​Y ​ ​Acad ​ ​Sci. ​ ​2001​ ​950:241-58).
The ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​CEO ​ ​was ​ ​very ​ ​interested ​ ​to ​ ​have ​ ​her ​ ​company ​ ​support ​ ​the ​ ​NASA ​ ​mission ​ ​to ​ ​find
life ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​universe. ​ ​She ​ ​also ​ ​realized ​ ​that ​ ​participation ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​mission ​ ​offered ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​Company
an ​ ​uique, ​ ​high ​ ​profile ​ ​business ​ ​opportunity. ​ ​​ ​He ​ ​convinced ​ ​NASA ​ ​to ​ ​showcase ​ ​a ​ ​new
polyurethane ​ ​protective ​ ​coating ​ ​on​ ​the ​ ​robot ​ ​carried ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​SRV. ​ ​His ​ ​idea ​ ​was ​ ​to ​ ​dress ​ ​the ​ ​robot
like ​ ​the ​ ​singer ​ ​Elvis ​ ​Presley ​ ​and ​ ​bring ​ ​wide ​ ​attention ​ ​to ​ ​the ​ ​Mars ​ ​mission. ​ ​As ​ ​part ​ ​of​ ​this ​ ​public
relations ​ ​campaign, ​ ​he ​ ​has ​ ​named ​ ​the ​ ​robot ​ ​​ ​“ELVIS” ​ ​(Extraterrestrial ​ ​landing ​ ​vehicle ​ ​integrated
sampler).
You ​ ​are ​ ​not ​ ​quite ​ ​sure ​ ​why ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​has ​ ​a ​ ​Microbiologist ​ ​on​ ​staff, ​ ​but ​ ​you​ ​are ​ ​about ​ ​to ​ ​find ​ ​out
why ​ ​the ​ ​company ​ ​desperately ​ ​needs ​ ​one ​ ​now.
Your ​ ​boss ​ ​has ​ ​called ​ ​you​ ​into ​ ​his ​ ​office. ​ ​​ ​“Read ​ ​this ​ ​article!” ​ ​he ​ ​says, ​ ​pushing ​ ​the ​ ​front ​ ​page ​ ​of
The ​ ​Washington ​ ​Post ​ ​across ​ ​his ​ ​desk ​ ​to ​ ​you.​ ​​ ​Here ​ ​is ​ ​the ​ ​article:
ELVIS ​ ​NAKED, ​ ​SKINLESS ​ ​UPON
RETURN ​ ​FROM ​ ​OUTERSPACEThe ​ ​recent ​ ​return ​ ​to ​ ​Earth ​ ​of ​ ​Martian ​ ​soil
sampler ​ ​ELVIS ​ ​has ​ ​provided ​ ​scientists ​ ​with
the ​ ​opportunity ​ ​to ​ ​determine ​ ​if ​ ​Martian ​ ​soil
contains ​ ​viable ​ ​microorganisms. ​ ​Although
NASA ​ ​scientists ​ ​have ​ ​made ​ ​great ​ ​advances
in ​ ​understanding ​ ​the ​ ​physical ​ ​and ​ ​chemical
conditions ​ ​on​ ​the ​ ​surface ​ ​of ​ ​Mars, ​ ​perhaps
the ​ ​most ​ ​interesting ​ ​discoveries ​ ​are ​ ​yet ​ ​to
come ​ ​as ​ ​biological ​ ​scientists ​ ​begin ​ ​to
analyze ​ ​the ​ ​soil ​ ​samples. ​ ​Designed ​ ​to ​ ​gather
samples ​ ​and ​ ​maintain ​ ​them ​ ​in ​ ​their ​ ​normal
atmospheric ​ ​and ​ ​temperature ​ ​conditions,
EVLIS ​ ​is ​ ​a ​ ​sophisticated ​ ​robot ​ ​and ​ ​is ​ ​the
most ​ ​expensive ​ ​component ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​SRV
probe. ​ ​Inspired ​ ​by ​ ​the ​ ​acronym ​ ​for ​ ​the ​ ​unit
(ELVIS), ​ ​workers ​ ​constructed ​ ​this ​ ​robot ​ ​to
resemble ​ ​music ​ ​legend ​ ​Elvis ​ ​Presley, ​ ​and
even ​ ​fashioned ​ ​a ​ ​white ​ ​Spandex ​ ​jumpsuit,
made ​ ​out ​ ​of ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​polyurethane ​ ​to ​ ​enclose
the ​ ​sampler.
​ ​​ ​​ ​DuPunt ​ ​Chemical ​ ​company ​ ​has ​ ​benefited
tremendously ​ ​from ​ ​all ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​publicity, ​ ​and
has ​ ​seen ​ ​its ​ ​sales ​ ​of ​ ​polyurethane ​ ​quadruple.
This ​ ​‘human ​ ​connection’ ​ ​has ​ ​been
instrumental ​ ​in ​ ​convincing ​ ​Congress ​ ​to
provide ​ ​the ​ ​necessary ​ ​funding ​ ​for ​ ​NASA
and ​ ​its ​ ​many ​ ​related ​ ​space ​ ​exploration
programs.
​ ​​ ​​ ​However, ​ ​the ​ ​successful ​ ​completion ​ ​of ​ ​the
SRV ​ ​mission ​ ​has ​ ​generated ​ ​a ​ ​mystery, ​ ​one
that ​ ​has ​ ​led ​ ​to ​ ​accusations ​ ​of ​ ​contractors
providing ​ ​substandard ​ ​materials ​ ​(in
particular ​ ​defective ​ ​plastics) ​ ​used ​ ​in ​ ​the
SRV ​ ​or ​ ​of ​ ​someone ​ ​intentionally ​ ​sabotaging
the ​ ​plastic ​ ​components ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​SRV ​ ​in ​ ​an
​ ​This ​ ​opening ​ ​was ​ ​part ​ ​of ​ ​a ​ ​special,
televised ​ ​‘welcome ​ ​home’ ​ ​ceremony ​ ​in
which ​ ​​ ​ELVIS ​ ​was ​ ​supposed ​ ​to ​ ​‘dance’
down ​ ​the ​ ​SRV ​ ​exit ​ ​ramp ​ ​and ​ ​speak ​ ​his
trademark ​ ​words, ​ ​“Thank ​ ​you…thank ​ ​you
very ​ ​much ​ ​for ​ ​supporting ​ ​this ​ ​critical
space ​ ​exploration ​ ​mission.”
​ ​​ ​​ ​NASA ​ ​scientists ​ ​and ​ ​on-lookers ​ ​at ​ ​the
ceremony ​ ​were ​ ​shocked ​ ​to ​ ​find ​ ​that
ELVIS’s ​ ​jumpsuit ​ ​had ​ ​been ​ ​reduced ​ ​to ​ ​a
slimy ​ ​puddle. ​ ​Even ​ ​more ​ ​distressing ​ ​was
the ​ ​deterioration ​ ​of ​ ​ELVIS’s ​ ​‘skin’ ​ ​(a
version ​ ​of ​ ​Lycra ​ ​specially ​ ​developed ​ ​to
resemble ​ ​human ​ ​skin). ​ ​​ ​This ​ ​too ​ ​was
reduced ​ ​to ​ ​a ​ ​slimy ​ ​residue ​ ​that ​ ​dripped
from ​ ​the ​ ​metal ​ ​‘skeleton’ ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​ELVIS
unit. ​ ​​ ​The ​ ​deterioration ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​plastic
components ​ ​of ​ ​ELVIS ​ ​ruined ​ ​what
organizers ​ ​had ​ ​planned ​ ​to ​ ​be ​ ​a ​ ​touching
ceremony ​ ​at ​ ​the ​ ​mission’s ​ ​completion.
ELVIS’s ​ ​exit ​ ​from ​ ​the ​ ​otherwise ​ ​intact
spacecraft ​ ​was ​ ​met ​ ​by​ ​gasps ​ ​and ​ ​screams
from ​ ​the ​ ​gathered ​ ​audience. ​ ​​ ​“It ​ ​was ​ ​a
terrible ​ ​sight!” ​ ​said ​ ​one ​ ​member ​ ​of ​ ​the
audience. ​ ​​ ​“We ​ ​expected ​ ​to ​ ​see ​ ​the ​ ​King,
but ​ ​we ​ ​saw ​ ​a ​ ​horrible ​ ​mess, ​ ​a ​ ​grotesque
parody ​ ​of ​ ​Elvis. ​ ​​ ​Without ​ ​his ​ ​plastics ​ ​lips,
I ​ ​couldn’t ​ ​understand ​ ​a ​ ​word ​ ​he ​ ​said…and
the ​ ​smell ​ ​was ​ ​horrible! ​ ​​ ​I’m ​ ​telling ​ ​you,​ ​I
thought ​ ​I ​ ​was ​ ​going ​ ​to ​ ​hurl!!” ​ ​​ ​​ ​said ​ ​one
NASA ​ ​official ​ ​who ​ ​wished ​ ​to ​ ​remain
anonymous.
​ ​​ ​​ ​Television ​ ​viewers ​ ​were ​ ​spared ​ ​much ​ ​of
the ​ ​trauma ​ ​of ​ ​these ​ ​sights ​ ​as ​ ​networks
quickly ​ ​switched ​ ​to ​ ​a ​ ​new ​ ​episode ​ ​of ​ ​Dino
Squad ​ ​in ​ ​which ​ ​a ​ ​cartoon ​ ​version ​ ​of ​ ​the
ELVIS ​ ​helps ​ ​five ​ ​teens ​ ​transform ​ ​intoattempt ​ ​to ​ ​embarrass ​ ​the ​ ​U.S. ​ ​space
exploration ​ ​program.
​ ​​ ​​ ​Upon ​ ​its ​ ​return ​ ​to ​ ​Earth, ​ ​the ​ ​SRV ​ ​capsule
was ​ ​opened ​ ​to ​ ​allow ​ ​scientists ​ ​to ​ ​recover ​ ​the
soil ​ ​samples.
dinosaurs ​ ​and ​ ​use ​ ​their ​ ​powers ​ ​to ​ ​protect
the ​ ​Earth ​ ​from ​ ​global ​ ​warming. ​ ​An
investigation ​ ​is ​ ​underway.
Stifling ​ ​your ​ ​initial ​ ​reaction ​ ​(“Oh ​ ​yeah, ​ ​new ​ ​Dino ​ ​Squad!”) ​ ​you​ ​manage ​ ​to ​ ​mumble ​ ​“What ​ ​a
tragedy!”.
“Yes. ​ ​​ ​Yes. ​ ​​ ​And ​ ​this ​ ​could ​ ​take ​ ​an ​ ​ugly ​ ​turn ​ ​for ​ ​DuPunt!” ​ ​answers ​ ​your ​ ​boss. ​ ​​ ​“I’m ​ ​not ​ ​sure
what ​ ​caused ​ ​this ​ ​mess, ​ ​but ​ ​I ​ ​do​ ​know ​ ​a ​ ​couple ​ ​of ​ ​things ​ ​that ​ ​didn’t ​ ​make ​ ​it ​ ​into ​ ​that ​ ​Post ​ ​article:
● the ​ ​only ​ ​plastics ​ ​showing ​ ​damage ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​SRV ​ ​were ​ ​polyurethanes;
● our ​ ​company ​ ​(DuPunt) ​ ​provided ​ ​those ​ ​polyurethane ​ ​products ​ ​to ​ ​NASA ​ ​at ​ ​a ​ ​cost ​ ​of
$15,000,000.​ ​​ ​We’re ​ ​in ​ ​big ​ ​trouble ​ ​if ​ ​we ​ ​can’t ​ ​prove ​ ​that ​ ​something ​ ​from ​ ​MARS ​ ​is
responsible ​ ​for ​ ​destroying ​ ​ELVIS
He ​ ​continues, ​ ​“The ​ ​polyurethane ​ ​products ​ ​we ​ ​provided ​ ​were ​ ​first-rate. ​ ​​ ​We ​ ​didn’t ​ ​cut ​ ​any
corners ​ ​with ​ ​this ​ ​stuff. ​ ​​ ​Products ​ ​from ​ ​the ​ ​same ​ ​batches ​ ​of ​ ​polyurethane ​ ​have ​ ​been ​ ​into ​ ​outer
space ​ ​before, ​ ​and ​ ​they ​ ​returned ​ ​just ​ ​fine. ​ ​​ ​There ​ ​must ​ ​be ​ ​some ​ ​explanation ​ ​other ​ ​than ​ ​our
incompetence. ​ ​​ ​​ ​This ​ ​is ​ ​where ​ ​you​ ​come ​ ​in: ​ ​I ​ ​need ​ ​you​ ​to ​ ​find ​ ​that ​ ​explanation!”
“Why ​ ​me?” ​ ​you​ ​ask.
“Because ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​stink!” ​ ​your ​ ​boss ​ ​answers. ​ ​​ ​“Some ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​scientists ​ ​present ​ ​at ​ ​the ​ ​ELVIS ​ ​disaster
said ​ ​the ​ ​smell ​ ​reminded ​ ​them ​ ​of ​ ​an ​ ​old ​ ​fermenter ​ ​or ​ ​an ​ ​autoclave. ​ ​Those ​ ​are ​ ​microbiology ​ ​terms,
aren’t ​ ​they?” ​ ​says ​ ​your ​ ​boss. ​ ​​ ​“Those ​ ​comments ​ ​tell ​ ​me ​ ​that ​ ​this ​ ​whole ​ ​stinking ​ ​mess ​ ​might ​ ​be
caused ​ ​by​ ​microorganisms…you ​ ​know: ​ ​bacteria, ​ ​fungi, ​ ​viruses, ​ ​germs…something ​ ​like ​ ​that.
Get ​ ​right ​ ​to ​ ​work ​ ​on​ ​this! ​ ​​ ​You ​ ​and ​ ​I ​ ​will ​ ​have ​ ​to ​ ​work ​ ​closely ​ ​on ​ ​this, ​ ​you​ ​know. ​ ​​ ​I’ll ​ ​handle ​ ​all
the ​ ​communications ​ ​with ​ ​the ​ ​press, ​ ​and ​ ​you​ ​handle ​ ​the ​ ​science….just ​ ​make ​ ​sure ​ ​that ​ ​you​ ​explain
everything ​ ​to ​ ​me ​ ​so ​ ​that ​ ​I ​ ​can ​ ​speak ​ ​about ​ ​it ​ ​to ​ ​the ​ ​press ​ ​without ​ ​making ​ ​a ​ ​fool ​ ​of ​ ​myself ​ ​and
DuPunt!”
Okay. ​ ​​ ​You ​ ​are ​ ​a ​ ​trained ​ ​scientist…you ​ ​can ​ ​do​ ​this! ​ ​​ ​What ​ ​do​ ​scientists ​ ​do? ​ ​​ ​They ​ ​answer
questions ​ ​by​ ​testing ​ ​specific ​ ​hypotheses.
You ​ ​are ​ ​so ​ ​happy ​ ​that ​ ​you ​ ​took ​ ​a ​ ​lot ​ ​of ​ ​Microbiology ​ ​classes, ​ ​because ​ ​they ​ ​taught ​ ​you​ ​what
scientists ​ ​do! ​ ​​ ​If ​ ​you​ ​are ​ ​going ​ ​to ​ ​determine ​ ​what ​ ​happened ​ ​to ​ ​ELVIS, ​ ​you​ ​must ​ ​develop ​ ​atestable ​ ​hypothesis, ​ ​and ​ ​then ​ ​generate ​ ​data ​ ​

to ​ ​determine ​ ​if ​ ​your ​ ​explanation ​ ​makes ​ ​sense. ​ ​As ​ ​a
Microbiologist ​ ​at ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​you​ ​must ​ ​determine ​ ​what ​ ​has ​ ​happened ​ ​to ​ ​the ​ ​polyurethane.
As ​ ​an ​ ​employee ​ ​of ​ ​DUPUNT ​ ​Here ​ ​is ​ ​your ​ ​hypothesis:
“The ​ ​degradation ​ ​of ​ ​polyurethane ​ ​products ​ ​was ​ ​caused ​ ​by ​ ​a​ ​microorganism ​ ​or
microorganisms ​ ​present ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​soil ​ ​samples ​ ​collected ​ ​by ​ ​ELVIS.”
As ​ ​a ​ ​first ​ ​step ​ ​in ​ ​testing ​ ​your ​ ​hypothesis, ​ ​you​ ​believe ​ ​that ​ ​it ​ ​should ​ ​be ​ ​possible ​ ​to ​ ​visualize
microorganisms ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​degraded ​ ​goo​ ​by​ ​microscopy.
To ​ ​test ​ ​this ​ ​hypothesis, ​ ​you ​ ​will ​ ​need ​ ​to ​ ​think ​ ​about ​ ​some ​ ​specific ​ ​experiment(s), ​ ​but ​ ​you​ ​will
also ​ ​need ​ ​to ​ ​learn ​ ​and/or ​ ​remember ​ ​some ​ ​basic ​ ​Microbiology.
As ​ ​you​ ​address ​ ​this ​ ​large ​ ​question, ​ ​ask ​ ​yourself:
● What ​ ​do​ ​you​ ​know ​ ​at ​ ​this ​ ​point ​ ​that ​ ​will ​ ​help ​ ​you​ ​to ​ ​address ​ ​this ​ ​hypothesis?
● What ​ ​do​ ​you​ ​think ​ ​you​ ​need ​ ​to ​ ​know/learn ​ ​to ​ ​be ​ ​able ​ ​to ​ ​test ​ ​your​ ​overall ​ ​hypothesis?
How ​ ​realistic ​ ​is ​ ​the ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​Microbiologist ​ ​hypothesis?
Is ​ ​your ​ ​boss ​ ​just ​ ​grasping ​ ​at ​ ​straws, ​ ​or ​ ​is ​ ​there ​ ​really ​ ​a​ ​possibility ​ ​that ​ ​Microbes ​ ​from
Mars ​ ​could ​ ​be ​ ​the ​ ​culprits ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​degradation ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​polyurethane?
In​ ​order ​ ​to​ ​answer ​ ​this ​ ​question,​ ​you​ ​need​ ​to​ ​find​ ​out ​ ​several ​ ​things.​ ​​ ​One ​ ​thing
you​ ​would​ ​need​ ​to​ ​explore ​ ​is ​ ​whether ​ ​there ​ ​is ​ ​any ​ ​evidence ​ ​that ​ ​microbes ​ ​could
exist
​​s
omewhere ​ ​other ​ ​than​ ​earth.
To ​ ​help ​ ​you​ ​consider ​ ​the ​ ​support ​ ​for ​ ​your ​ ​hypothesis, ​ ​we ​ ​will ​ ​provide ​ ​some ​ ​specific ​ ​smaller
questions: ​ ​PAK ​ ​questions.
For ​ ​the ​ ​ELVIS ​ ​Meltdown ​ ​case ​ ​there ​ ​will ​ ​be ​ ​4​ ​PAK ​ ​questions.
Question ​ ​one
Using ​ ​light ​ ​microscopy, ​ ​you ​ ​examine ​ ​the ​ ​soil ​ ​samples ​ ​and ​ ​the ​ ​’goo’ ​ ​from ​ ​the ​ ​degraded
polyurethane. ​ ​Will ​ ​this ​ ​approach ​ ​allow ​ ​you ​ ​to ​ ​observe ​ ​all ​ ​microorganisms ​ ​present ​ ​in ​ ​the
samples?
Why ​ ​or ​ ​why ​ ​not?
What ​ ​are ​ ​the ​ ​limitations ​ ​of ​ ​this ​ ​approach?Question ​ ​two
You ​ ​use ​ ​phase ​ ​contrast ​ ​microscopy ​ ​to ​ ​observe ​ ​a ​ ​wet ​ ​mount ​ ​of ​ ​a ​ ​soil ​ ​sample ​ ​(the ​ ​first
picture ​ ​below) ​ ​and ​ ​a ​ ​“goo” ​ ​sample ​ ​(the ​ ​second ​ ​image ​ ​below) ​ ​from ​ ​the ​ ​ELVIS. ​ ​In ​ ​what
ways ​ ​are ​ ​the ​ ​potential ​ ​ET ​ ​microbes ​ ​similar ​ ​to ​ ​microbes ​ ​previously ​ ​characterized ​ ​on
Earth? ​ ​In ​ ​what ​ ​ways ​ ​are ​ ​they ​ ​different? ​ ​How ​ ​could
you ​ ​determine ​ ​whether ​ ​the ​ ​microbes ​ ​present ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​soil ​ ​or ​ ​goo ​ ​samples ​ ​are
phylogenetically ​ ​similar ​ ​or ​ ​distant ​ ​from ​ ​known ​ ​microorganisms ​ ​on ​ ​Earth?
Question ​ ​three
Your ​ ​boss ​ ​has ​ ​done ​ ​a ​ ​little ​ ​reading ​ ​about ​ ​microorganisms, ​ ​but ​ ​he ​ ​finds ​ ​it ​ ​all ​ ​pretty
confusing. ​ ​”Dude ​ ​it’s ​ ​like ​ ​a ​ ​foreign ​ ​language!” ​ ​he ​ ​complains. ​ ​”I ​ ​have ​ ​to ​ ​face ​ ​the ​ ​press ​ ​to
explain ​ ​our ​ ​idea ​ ​that ​ ​microbes ​ ​might ​ ​be ​ ​responsible ​ ​for ​ ​all ​ ​the ​ ​damage ​ ​to ​ ​ELVIS, ​ ​but ​ ​I
can’t ​ ​even ​ ​pronounce ​ ​most ​ ​of ​ ​these ​ ​terms, ​ ​much ​ ​less ​ ​explain ​ ​them. ​ ​I ​ ​think ​ ​that ​ ​it ​ ​will
help ​ ​my ​ ​press ​ ​conference ​ ​presentation ​ ​a ​ ​lot ​ ​if ​ ​I ​ ​can ​ ​use ​ ​some ​ ​visual ​ ​aids. ​ ​What ​ ​I ​ ​want
to ​ ​do ​ ​is ​ ​explain ​ ​to ​ ​my ​ ​audience ​ ​what ​ ​bacteria ​ ​look ​ ​like. ​ ​You ​ ​know ​ ​the ​ ​functionalarchitecture ​ ​of ​ ​bacteria ​ ​and ​ ​how ​ ​they ​ ​might ​ ​be ​ ​

able ​ ​to ​ ​degrade ​ ​polyurethane. ​ ​I ​ ​think ​ ​that
eukaryotes ​ ​might ​ ​be ​ ​too ​ ​complicated ​ ​for ​ ​this ​ ​audience, ​ ​so ​ ​I ​ ​just ​ ​want ​ ​to ​ ​show ​ ​them ​ ​what
Gram-negative ​ ​bacteria ​ ​look ​ ​like ​ ​in ​ ​a ​ ​schematic ​ ​diagram. ​ ​I’ve ​ ​put ​ ​together ​ ​this ​ ​diagram
of ​ ​a ​ ​typical ​ ​Gram-negative ​ ​cell. ​ ​Take ​ ​a ​ ​look ​ ​at ​ ​it ​ ​and ​ ​make ​ ​any ​ ​corrections ​ ​you ​ ​think ​ ​are
necessary. ​ ​Notice ​ ​that ​ ​I ​ ​not ​ ​only ​ ​labeled ​ ​the ​ ​features, ​ ​I ​ ​also ​ ​indicated ​ ​the ​ ​major
biochemical ​ ​composition ​ ​and ​ ​function(s) ​ ​and ​ ​of ​ ​each ​ ​main ​ ​feature. ​ ​Oh ​ ​yeah ​ ​this ​ ​figure
will ​ ​probably ​ ​make ​ ​it ​ ​into ​ ​lots ​ ​of ​ ​newspapers, ​ ​magazines, ​ ​and ​ ​web ​ ​sites, ​ ​so ​ ​it ​ ​needs ​ ​to
be ​ ​scientifically ​ ​correct. ​ ​We ​ ​wouldn’t ​ ​want ​ ​to ​ ​make ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​look ​ ​stupid, ​ ​would ​ ​we?
Anywho ​ ​I’ve ​ ​already ​ ​done ​ ​most ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​work. ​ ​Just ​ ​proofread ​ ​it ​ ​and ​ ​make ​ ​a ​ ​list ​ ​of
necessary ​ ​corrections.”
What ​ ​corrections ​ ​would ​ ​you ​ ​make ​ ​to ​ ​[A], ​ ​through ​ ​[G], ​ ​if ​ ​any?

 

 

 

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