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Medication

A certain medicine is given in an amount proportional to a patient’s body weight. Suppose a patient weighing 132 pounds requires 143 milligrams of medicine. What is the amount of medicine required by a patient weighing 156 pounds?

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How can chemistry be used in pharmacology and in medicine.

How can chemistry be used in pharmacology and in medicine.
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Pharmacology Project Plan

Pharmacology
You are the Associate Director of a New Therapeutics research division in a Pharmaceutical Company called Ingenius Therapeutics. You have a lead product that has shown to bind very strongly to the Sodium Glucose Transporter 2 (SLGT2) and inhibit it’s function. It is known that SLGT2 helps reabsorb glucose from the urine and there are a couple of promising SLGT2 inhibitors already in Phase III clinical trials to treat type 2 diabetes. By inhibiting SLGT2, glucose is not re-absorbed from the urine and glucose levels drop.
Put together a project plan for your Director to explain how this drug will be tested, beginning with preclinical testing in vitro, through in vivo testing in animals and finally the steps you need to take to bring the drug to the marketplace. The project report must be less than 2,000 words.

Identify each stage of the testing.

Explain what models you are using to test the drug and why.

Describe the steps you need to take before you can begin human clinical trials.

Identify the results that you would need to achieve at each stage before you progress to the next step

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Literature review (Effect of Moringa and Neem Ethanolic Leaves Extract on Blood Glucose Level in Male Diabetic Rats)

I only want literature review. You can add some figures. The references MUST be from the year 2000 to year 2015. The literature review MUST follow the following order. 1- Diabetes Mellitus. 2- Definition of diabetes. 3- Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus. 4- Causes of Diabetes Mellitus. 5- Effect of Diabetes on biological evaluation. 6- Effect of Diabetes on blood glucose and serum insulin secretion. 7- Effect of Diabetes on lipid profile parameters. 8- Effect of Diabetes on liver and pancreas tissues. 9- introduction and idea about Moringa. 10- Effect of Moringa on biological evaluation. 11- Effect of Moringa on Blood Glucose and Serum Insulin profile. 12- Effect of Moringa on Lipid. 13- Effect of Moringa on liver and pancreas tissues. 14- introduction and idea about Neem. 15- Effect of Neem on biological evaluation. 16- Effect of Neem on Blood Glucose and Serum Insulin. 17- Effect of Neem on Lipid profile. 18- Effect of Neem on liver and pancreas tissues

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Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

 
Week 3 Discussion

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Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

As the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women, cardiovascular disorders account for 7 million hospitalizations per year (NCSL, 2012). This is the result of the extensive treatment and care that is often required for patients with these disorders. While the incidences of hospitalizations and death are still high, the mortality rate of cardiovascular disorders has been declining since the 1960s (CDC, 2011). Improved treatment options have contributed to this decline, as well as more knowledge on patient risk factors. As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Consider the following case studies:

Case Study 1:
Patient AO has a history of obesity and has recently gained 9 pounds. The patient has been diagnosed with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:
Atenolol 12.5 mg daily
Doxazosin 8 mg daily
Hydralazine 10 mg qid
Sertraline 25 mg daily
Simvastatin 80 mg daily

Case Study 2:
Patient HM has a history of atrial fibrillation and a transient ischemic attack (TIA). The patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:
Warfarin 5 mg daily MWF and 2.5 mg daily T, TH, Sat, Sun
Aspirin 81 mg daily
Metformin 1000 mg po bid
Glyburide 10 mg bid
Atenolol 100 mg po daily
Motrin 200 mg 1–3 tablets every 6 hours as needed for pain

Case Study 3:
Patient CB has a history of strokes. The patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:
Glipizide 10 mg po daily
HCTZ 25 mg daily
Atenolol 25 mg po daily
Hydralazine 25 mg qid
Simvastatin 80 mg daily
Verapamil 180 mg CD daily

To prepare:
•Review this week’s media presentation on hypertension and hyperlipidemia, as well as Chapters 19 and 20 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text.
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•Select one of the three case studies, as well as one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
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•Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
•Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
•Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.

Post on or before Day 3 an explanation of how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you selected. Then, describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Finally, explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan.
RESOURCES: CANNOT USE RESOURCES OLDER THAN 5 YEARS. MUST ALL BE SCHOLARY RESOURCES

Week 3 Learning Resources

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This page contains the Learning Resources for this week. Be sure to scroll down the page to see all of this week’s assigned Learning Resources. To access select media resources, please use the media player below.

Required Resources

Readings
•Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
◦Chapter 19, “Hypertension” (pp. 230–246)

This chapter examines the relationships between the cardiovascular, nervous, and renal systems. It then describes diagnostic criteria for hypertension patients, drugs used to treat hypertension and possible adverse reactions, monitoring patient response, and patient education.
◦Chapter 20, “Hyperlipidemia” (pp. 247–262)

This chapter explores causes of hyperlipidemia, treatments for hyperlipidemia patients, and methods for monitoring patient response. It also reviews strategies for risk assessment and patient education.

◦ Chapter 21, “Chronic Stable Angina” (pp. 263–277)

This chapter begins by exploring factors that contribute to chronic stable angina, types of drugs used in treatment, and diagnostic criteria for initiating drug therapy. It also examines methods for monitoring patient response to treatment and educating patients on self-care.
◦Chapter 22, “Heart Failure” (pp. 278–297)

This chapter examines the process of prescribing drugs to treat heart failure and explores effects of prescribed drugs, proper dosages, and possible adverse reactions.

◦ Chapter 49, “Anticoagulation Disturbances” (pp. 764–803)

This chapter covers drug therapy options for three disorders requiring anticoagulants: venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation, and ischemic stroke. It also explains the process of initiating and managing drug therapy for patients with these disorders.

•Drugs.com. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.drugs.com/

This website presents a comprehensive review of prescription and over-the-counter drugs including information on common uses and potential side effects. It also provides updates relating to new drugs on the market, support from health professionals, and a drug-drug interactions checker.

Media
•Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Baltimore, MD: Author.

This media presentation outlines hypertension and hyperlipidemia including contributing factors, evaluation, treatment, and implications.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 10 minutes.

Optional Resources

Refer to the Optional Resources listed in Week 1.

Please proceed to the Discussion.

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Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

 
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body. When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharamcodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease. In this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a particular patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes altered his or her response to a drug.

To prepare:

•Review this week’s media presentation with Dr. Terry Buttaro, as well as Chapter 2 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text, and the Scott article in the Learning Resources. Consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
•Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last five years. Select a case from the last five years that involves a patient whose individual differences in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug. When referring to your patient, make sure to use a pseudonym or other false form of identification. This is to ensure the privacy and protection of the patient.
•Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.
•Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study.

Post on or before Day 3 a description of the case you selected. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient from the case you selected. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case.
RESOURCES:

Readings
•Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
◦Chapter 2, “Pharmacokinetic Basis of Therapeutics and Pharmacodynamic Principles” (pp. 15–29)

This chapter examines concepts related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. It also explores patient factors that health care providers consider when prescribing drug therapy to patients.
◦Chapter 3, “Impact of Drug Interactions and Adverse Events on Therapeutics” (pp. 30–48)

This chapter explains drug-drug, drug-food, drug-herb, and drug-disease interactions. It also reviews patient factors that influence drug interactions and then covers adverse drug reactions.
◦Chapter 4, “Principles of Pharmacotherapy in Pediatrics” (pp. 49–59)

This chapter explores concepts relating to drug selection, administration, and interaction for pediatric patients. It also compares age-related pharmacokinetic differences in children and adults.
◦Chapter 6, “Principles of Pharmacotherapy in Elderly Patients” (pp. 66–78)

This chapter describes issues and factors that affect drug therapy for elderly patients. It then explores concepts relating to drug selection, administration, and management for elderly patients.

•Hilmer, S. N., McLachlan, A. J., & Le Couteur, D. G. (2007). Clinical pharmacology in the geriatric patient. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, 21(3), 217–230.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article explores issues that health care providers consider when prescribing drug treatment to geriatric patients. It also examines the role of polypharmacy in adverse drug reactions and the importance of managing patient response to drug treatment.

•Scott, S. A. (2011). Personalizing medicine with clinical pharmacogenetics. Genetics in Medicine, 13(12), 987–995. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3290900/

This article examines pharmacogenetic testing in relation to personalized drug therapy plans and explores evidence-based guidelines and recommendations on pharmacogenetic testing.
•Drugs.com. (2012). Retrieved August 22, 2012, from https://www.drugs.com/

This website presents a comprehensive review of prescription and over-the-counter drugs including information on common uses and potential side effects. It also provides updates relating to new drugs on the market, support from health professionals, and a drug-drug interactions checker.

Media

•Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Introduction to advanced pharmacology. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, Associate Professor of Practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse.

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Pharmacology & Toxicology

Complete Parts A (75% of total marks) and B (25% of total marks)
A – Discuss the short-comings of the TGN1412 clinical trial?
B – Summarise the regulatory changes (in particular the EMEA CHMP SWP 2007 guidelines) that were introduced following the TGN1412 incident and explain how then aim to reduce the risks of ‘first-in-man” trials.

Support your discussions with relevant peer-reviewed publications where appropriate and include a list of references.

Guidelines
Word limit is 2000 words (+/- 200 words) in total for Parts A & B combined.
Please include the total word count (excluding references) on the title page.
Example of referencing format below and please note policy on plagiarism.

Referencing:
For this assignment the Vancouver or Harvard style of referencing may be used.

As an example of the Vancouver Style of referencing, the references should be listed in a reference section at the end of the essay (not as footnotes), and should cited by number at the end of the sentence or paragraph to which they relate. Every statement of fact should be supported by a reference. If a whole section is derived from one reference, cite it at the end of the first and last sentence of the relevant section.
Authors, journal details, dates and article titles should all be given. Web sources should be cited giving the URL, the title, the authors, and the date last modified (where possible). The reference list at the end of the assignment should contain all the sources cited, listed numerically according to citation order, and be formatted according to the style shown overleaf.

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Pharmacology of Cardiovascular & Respiratory Drugs

Below are 3 questions relating to the pharmacology of cardiovascular & respiratory drugs. In no more than 1000 words, you are to answer the specific questions. you are required to research each issue, using various sources (i.e. not just text books, but also journal articles and peer reviewed sources and construct answers that show that you understand the issues raised by each question, and are able to address them in a succinct, but informative way.

You are to pay particular attention to proper referencing, both in text, as well as at the end of your assignment.

1. Discuss the importance of appropriate renal function in regulating blood pressure.

2. Explain how ACE I and ARBs help in diabetes care

3. Discuss the mechanism of action of monoclonal antibodies in asthma care, and compare their efficacy with that of corticosteroids.

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