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Game Theory in the Social Sciences

Game Theory in the Social Sciences

True or false, and explain.
It is not possible for a finite game to have a mixed strategy Nash equilibrium, if all players have strictly dominant strategies.

Consider a contributions game with 2 players. Each player can either ‘Contribute’ or ‘Not.’ If either (or both) Contribute, a good is provided to both. The good is worth 2 jollies to each player. If a player Contributes, she pays a cost of 1 jolly (deducted from the 2 jollies that the good is worth to her). If a player does Not contribute, she has no cost deducted from her jollies. If both players choose Not to contribute, both players receive 0 jollies.
(a) Suppose player 1 uses a mixed strategy. What is player 2’s expected payoff?
(b) Suppose player 2 uses a mixed strategy. What is player 1’s expected payoff?
(c) What is the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium in this game?
(d) Suppose the good is worth 3 jollies to both players instead of 2. What is the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium of this game?

Consider a 2 player stag hunt in which a Stag is worth 6 jollies to each player and a Hare is worth 1 jolly to any player catching one. What is the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium in this game?
. Pat and Chris must independently decide whether to go to Naan n’ Curry or Top Dog at noon. Pat prefers Naan n’ Curry; Chris prefers Top Dog; and as BFF’s, they derive no jollies unless they eat together. Specifically, if they both choose Top Dog, Chris earns 3 jollies and Pat 1 jolly, and vice versa if they eat at Naan n’ Curry. 1

(a) Draw the strategic form

(b) Identify all Nash equilibria

Pat and Chris have had a falling out and are now mortal enemies. They must independently decide where to eat, as in the previous question. Pat still prefers Naan n’ Curry; Chris still prefers Top Dog. Each player gets 1 jolly from eating at her less preferred place and 3 jollies from eating at her more preferred place. Now, they each lose 1 jolly deducted from these payoffs if they eat at the same place.

(a) Draw the strategic form

(b) Identify all Nash equilibriam

Art

My assignment is about to find an art book, which has some pictures in it.
Choose one picture of the book and write what does the picture describe and what is in the picture and also write about what does the picture express.
It must be two full pages with double space.
Use simple words because I am an international student.
Makes sure the grammar is correct.
At top:
1- The name of book of art work and artist name.

Write about: subject matter, style, narrative but Not personal opinions.

football hooliganism

my dissertation topic is on ‘does hooliganism still exist in football.

i need a literature review on this.
Then narrow your focus to deal with the studies that overlap with your research.
Finally, hone in on any research which is directly related to your specific investigation. Proportionally you spend most time discussing those studies which have most direct relevance to your research.
It is very important to note that your review should not be simply a description of what others have published in the form of a set of summaries, but should take the form of a critical discussion, showing insight and an awareness of differing arguments, theories and approaches. It should be a synthesis and analysis of the relevant published work, linked at all times to your own purpose and rationale.

the literature review should:

• compare and contrast different authors’ views on an issue
• group authors who draw similar conclusions
• criticise aspects of methodology
• note areas in which authors are in disagreement
• highlight exemplary studies
• highlight gaps in research
• show how your study relates to previous studies
• show how your study relates to the literature in general
• conclude by summarising what the literature says

also

define your topic and provide an appropriate context for reviewing the literature;
establish your reasons – i.e. point of view – for
reviewing the literature;
explain the organisation – i.e. sequence – of the review;
state the scope of the review – i.e. what is included and what isn’t included. For example, if you were reviewing the literature on obesity in children you might say something like: There are a large number of studies of obesity trends in the general population. However, since the focus of this research is on obesity in children, these will not be reviewed in detail and will only be referred to as appropriate.
Main body

The middle or main body should:

organise the literature according to common themes;
provide insight into the relation between your chosen topic and the wider subject area e.g. between obesity in children and obesity in general;
move from a general, wider view of the literature being reviewed to the specific focus of your research.
Conclusion

The conclusion should:

summarise the important aspects of the existing body of literature;
evaluate the current state of the literature reviewed;
identify significant flaws or gaps in existing knowledge;
outline areas for future study;

please be very critical when writing this, and stay focused on the topic ‘does hooliganism still exist in football’ use themes and past and present researches and compare and contrast.

Iconography

discussion

Iconography is the term to describe the “hidden messages” that are contained in works of art – most notably, paintings. Most religions, including Christianity, have their own sets of iconography. For instance, in this painting, there is a vase of lilies on the table. The Virgin Mary is known by her own flower, the lily, which signifies her purity. Her virginity is also denoted by the water urn and the bleach-white towel in the background. If you had a high powered magnifying glass, you would notice that the book on the table is actually the Bible and that it is opened to a passage about her miraculous holy conception. In case you are wondering how the “Immaculate Conception” could be written in a book before it actually happened, you might like to know that the term refers to her own birth. Mary, in some traditions, is believed to have been born without sin. If you look closely, you will see what looks like Casper with a cross zooming in through the window. This symbol is twofold – first of all, the Virgin was thought to have conceived much like a pane of glass – she was impregnated, yet remained undamaged, just as light passes through glass. Secondly, at this point in time, it was commonly thought that she had the spirit of Christ go in through her ear which is exactly where that little Ghost is heading.

On the right hand side of the painting, Joseph is at work in his shop. On his table are carpentry tools, but there is also a mouse trap. This is a complex image that indicates that Christianity will be the trap that contains the evil of Satan, whose iconography is that of a mouse or a rat. On the left hand panel are images of the donors (the people who paid to have this painted). Behind them is a man in red, but I don’t think I have ever read anything that adequately describes who he is.

There are a lot more “messages” in this painting. Note that there is one candle on the fireplace indicating the presence of God – this also appears in the Arnolfini Wedding Portrait chandelier on p. 520 (the book also describes some of the iconography in this painting). Northern painting, in particular, loved using iconography. People felt educated and erudite when they understood paintings such as this. People in the 15th through 18th centuries would have understood complex iconography. Why? Because they were surrounded by art – art in church, art in government buildings, art in middle and upper class homes, etc. We, on the other hand, are surrounded by TV and computers. However, if you look around you, you will see a lot of iconography that even we understand. Red, white and blue are examples of our patriotism; if you see a yellow triangle, you will yield even if it doesn’t have the word “yield” printed on it; the notorious red circle with a line through it means “no”; little abstract stick people tell us which bathroom to use; etc. (End)

Does knowledge of iconography contribute to one’s appreciation of a work of art?
Does ignorance of iconography compromise one’s ability to appreciate a work of art?
Is the beauty inherent or do you need to understand the iconography?
How would someone raised in a non-Christian country respond to this painting (the Merode Altarpiece)?
How much of this painting, in particular, would you have understood if I had not pointed things out?
Please look through the chapter and use other paintings to support your argument.
Remember to do a good job – you are the designated teachers for the other half of the class – back up your arguments with examples and proofread your entries.
If you are an odd age (19, 25, 33, 57, etc.), read Scream Stolen from Norway Museum and Munch Art Thieves Jailed in Oslo, then answer the following questions in the “Munch” thread.

Were these paintings insured? For how much or why not?
What are the values of these paintings?
What determines the value of a work of art (tough question; do some investigating)?
What does the word ‘priceless’ actually mean in relation to art?
What iconography can you find in this work of art? (Your honest answer will go much further with me than something found on the Internet.)
Make sure that you don’t just write a simple, terse sentence to answer each question. I’ll be looking for thorough answers throughout this assignment.

MUSLIM WOMEN AND FOOTBALL: PERCEPTIONS OF BARRIERS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF A COMMUNITY FROM NIGERIA

This dissertation is chapter 1 which is the Introduction: this chapter of the research would introduce the topic in detailed yet precise manner, including the background of the study, the statement of purpose as well as the significance of the study. Moreover, the research question as well as the purpose of study and objectives must also be presented in order to make sure that the overall idea behind the research is not eluded. These are the research questions for the dissertation:
• Can identities be shaped and reinforced through participation in football?
• What is the perception of Muslim women participating in football?
• What barriers and opportunities are presented in the representation of Muslim women in football?
• Can the role of Muslim women participating in football be seen as ‘kicking against tradition?’
• How important to changing attitudes is the influence of football on Muslim society, but particularly to women?
• How beneficial is football to Muslim women and can they compete in real-time events without compromising their identity?
This chapter (Introduction) must explain proposed topic, well written and researched explanation. This chapter must be 1000 words.

Special topics in sport and psychology

This assessment is in two parts. For Part 1, you are required to answer questions relating to a case study concerning the psychological aspects of sports injury (which was covered in Unit 13) and which refers to the video clip below, ‘Harry: coping with injury’. Part 2 involves reflecting on your learning within your chosen option units in Study Topic 4.
Part 1
Case study (1200 words/60 marks)
Read the case study below and answer the questions that follow. You should also watch the video referred to in the case study, ‘Harry: coping with injury’, which is below. A copy of the transcript of this clip can be found in the ‘Other formats’ area of the Module Website.
Skip transcript: Harry: coping with injury
Transcript: Harry: coping with injury
MATT (TRAINER)
Well, after today. Don’t bounce around like that.
HARRY
What?
MATT (TRAINER)
Sit properly. Harry.
We had a medical review today and he didn’t get the greatest of news. He was really hoping that he’d be able to sprint and begin training, but we’re still really looking at another at least four to six weeks of rehab. He’s actually been pretty upset today, which is pretty unusual for him. He’s very, very frustrated right now.
HARRY
You do everything right, but yet everything still gets worse and worse. I’ve been positive, got on with it, do what I need to do, but yet that doesn’t have any effect on whether you’re going to get better or not or if you’ll be able to do whatever. When you do athletics, it’s your life, especially when you think you can go somewhere and you’re not allowed to do anything. I’m programmed to run. I’m programmed to train. That’s my life. That’s what I want to do, and that’s just like telling someone they can’t live their life.
INTERVIEWER
What’s it been like for you seeing your son not being able to do what he loves because of his injury?
FATHER
It is a bit stressful. Sometimes you can see that he’s just mildly depressed. The other day, he was crying on my shoulders. Came in and sat down, he was crying, and I really have to tell him, Harry, you have to be very well fit to go and run again because if you go now and you are not fit, you’re only just going to aggravate it and that would be the end of your career.
HARRY
Welcome to Baywatch.
MATT (TRAINER)
How was that overall, though?
HARRY
Can’t we do any jogging in the water?
MATT (TRAINER)
Not yet, not yet. Eventually, you’ll put a vest on and you’ll do running in the water, yeah, but not yet. I know it’s not running, but it still adds up.
HARRY
Biggest frustration of my life — crying, sobbing, didn’t know what to do with myself, but Matt, he helped me a lot, ’cause we thought let’s try and think about positive edge. How many people have had a year out to rest, literally just resting your muscles? And if we improve all the other stuff that we need to improve, people should be scared of me.
MATT (TRAINER)
I mean, this is the time at which coaches are almost more valuable. When things are going well, it’s all easy. When things are tough is when you really need to see whether you have the tools to turn that– turn that around.
Don’t be lazy in the front. It’s the front that needs to work.
The opportunity to race becomes very unlikely, but it can be very tempting to think, well, maybe we can get a race out this year. Those thoughts have crossed my mind, and certainly Harry has challenged me to keep an open mind about could we race this year. He’s so enthusiastic. He desperately wants to compete. It’s frustrating, more frustrating for him because he’s not able to do the things that he wants to do.
HARRY
If anything, it was a turning point and I’ve learned how to push forward and to never give up hope because, you know, I’ve been blessed with so much talent and I just need to perform and I just need to do what I need to do. You know, it could be a surprise thing where I’m back in a couple weeks or it could be another thing where it takes a couple of months.
End transcript: Harry: coping with injury
Hide transcript
Harry: coping with injury
Case study: Sita’s injury experiences
Sita, aged 26, is an elite level hockey player and a part-time student at university. Sita is no stranger to the injury experience. In the past 12 months she has experienced several hamstring strains and a dislocated shoulder. Her current injury is a Grade II anterior talofibular ligament injury (ankle injury) sustained during competitive match play. When describing what happened immediately before the injury, she said ‘I never saw the challenge coming’. Before the past 12 months, her only experience of injury had been injuries that prevented training and competing for no longer than a week. Sita has also been experiencing some personal problems at home: her father died a year ago and more recently her husband, who is the main breadwinner of the household, has lost his job. She also attends university and has several pieces of coursework that are due in. Sita is very hard-working, but she is struggling with one particular subject.
Sita feels frustrated after sustaining another injury so soon after her shoulder injury. She knows that rehabilitation is likely to take over six weeks and that she will miss several important games. This is causing her to feel very angry. Her team has several players pushing for first team places in her playing position and she is also worried that she will not regain her first team place once rehabilitated. She has told her coach that she will not observe training this week, because it is too painful to watch her teammates train, and that she feels ‘useless’ and is ‘letting them down’ at such a key time in the season. She is frustrated by having to move around on crutches, and daily activities (e.g. carrying a cup of tea from the kitchen to the dining room) have now become a source of stress. This has often caused her to lose her temper and on one occasion she threw the cup in frustration. She is trying to stay positive and focus on her recovery, but is feeling very demotivated and is struggling to push herself to engage fully with her rehabilitation programme. She is having doubts about her ability to recover from the injury and thinks she may be prone to injury in the future.
To help her to cope with the injury, Sita’s physiotherapist recommends that she watches a video of sprinter Harry Aikines-Aryeetey coming to terms with injury. By watching this video she realises that she is not alone in finding injury difficult to deal with, and empathises with the feelings Harry demonstrates in the film. She begins to realise that her own feelings are a typical response to injury and that it is possible to come through the injury in a positive way.
Questions
• a. What are the similarities between Sita’s and Harry’s experiences of injury? (100 words/5 marks)
• b.Discuss how psychological factors could have led to Sita’s injury. (300 words/15 marks)
• c.Using either a cognitive appraisal model or a grief response model, discuss Sita’s psychological reactions to injury, taking into consideration what factors may have led to these reactions and what effect they may have. (400 words/20 marks)
• d.Discuss three possible psychological intervention strategies that could help Sita to cope more effectively with the psychological effects of her injury. (400 words/20 marks)
Part 2
Reflecting on your learning (Units 14–16) (800 words/40 marks)
For this part of the assignment task, you are required to consider one of the optional units in Study Topic 4.
• a.Explain how your study of this unit has helped you to develop new insights into the topic area. (400 words/20 marks)
• b.Discuss the key findings of your chosen journal article and how these findings may apply in a sport and fitness environment. (400words/20 marks)

Public Art

What is the purpose of public art (to beautify, to educate, to challenge, to prompt conversation, to break monotony, etc.)? Use three Reading Packet sources in your essay.
Essay Expectations & Instructions
• • You MUST write your essay in response to the prompt (question) assigned to you
• • You MUST cite within your essay from at least 3 of the 5-7 different URL sources in your chosen Reading Packet.
• • You MUST use the Reading Packet sources to develop your argument.
• • You may NOT use or cite any sources outside of those in your Reading Packet.
The structure of your essay should include
• • The body of your essay, which is the development, or the explanation of your ideas, with citations from the articles in your
• • Citations from 3 or more articles in your Reading Packet as they relate to your position on the topic (you may support or
refute arguments presented by the Reading Packet authors, but you may not use or cite outside sources)
• • Explanations how the citations you include support your position, and
• • A conclusion that summarizes your argument, and returns to your central idea with new insight.

• Citing Sources

• The following is a summary of MLA Style standards relevant to the submission.
• “To document” means to tell the reader the source of any material a writer uses in his or her essay. Material needing documentation includes facts, statistical data, and ideas as well as the words used to express such information. Writers need to document, or cite, sources whether or not they are using the exact words of the original. If using any of the exact words (even just a phrase), writers need to put quotation marks around those words in addition to citing the source. Failure to use quotation marks appropriately constitutes plagiarism.
• For prose, writers need to find the author and page number of a work (Smith 76).
• Short Quotations (4 typed lines or less): Place the quote within the text of the essay. Introduce the quote with a comma, and place the period after the parenthetical citation. Use quotation marks to show all borrowed material. Include author and page number.
• Block Quotations (More than 4 typed lines): Place the quote one inch from the left margin, and omit quotation marks. Introduce the quote with a colon, and place the period before the parenthetical citation.
• Same author of multiple works: When this occurs, group the works by the same author together, and alphabetize the works cited list by the first word of the title. At the beginning of the second and subsequent works, use three dashes instead of writing the author’s name. Ex. – – -. In the essay, distinguish between the works by putting the first few words of the title in the parenthetical citation before the page number. Ex. (Four Wives 89).
• No author: If no author is available, leave it out and alphabetize the works cited list by the first key word in the title. (Key words do not include “A,” “An,” and “The.”) In the essay, use the first key word of the title when citing. Ex. (Art 76).
• Missing Information: In MLA, if a piece of information is not available, skip that piece, and move on to remaining information. Exceptions to this rule are pagination, publication date, etc. For a full list, see the MLA Handbook. Electronic sources often lack page numbers. If the electronic source uses paragraph numbers (par. or pars.) or screens numbers (screens), use this information in place of a page number.
• Documents on Websites or in Databases: When citing sources from the Internet make sure to determine which type of online source is needed. Sometimes, writers need to combine or adapt entries to meet their needs. For example, if a writer finds an article posted on a personal website not written by the author of the website, the writer needs to adapt the website with a known author entry to fit his or her needs.
• Multiple authors: When citing multiple authors internally, use a semicolon between internal citations. Ex. (Smith 45; Logan 22-23).
• Constructing and Organizing Your Works Cited
• List sources alphabetically by the last name of the first author of each source. When there is no author, alphabetize by title. For references that run over one line, indent the second and subsequent lines one-half inch.
• Book
• Template

The Secrets of Sports Direct

Essay Question

Using the case study ‘Dispatches: The Secrets of Sports Direct’ produce a written analysis of two of the following dimensions in which work is experienced, supported by appropriate theories and evidence plus practical examples from the case study:

• Control in the workplace
• Metaphors we encounter in organizations
• Power in Managerial Practices
• Conflict and Resistance
• Work Satisfaction

Further guidance

View and review the case study paying particular attention to the experiences of work for the Sports Direct staff. Using theory discussed in seminars and lectures this term (you should also include research from your own personal reading). You should analyse your observations using examples from the case study to support your arguments.

week 6

Examine the architecture and configurations of computing systems by writing a brief paper describing your ideal personal computer. State your main use of the computer. For example, the following may be some of the main reason(s) you need a computer: Internet, word processing, email, graphics, or multimedia. Make sure you describe a workable computer! Include all the hardware components and software you will need to be completely functional.

Football: Seeing Is Believing

Please Edit This Essay According To Rubric Below. Also, Please Attach A Cover Letter Which Should Be The First Page. A Cover Letter Is a formal analysis of your individual writing process.
A cover letter is critical thinking applied to your writing process. You should approach it as �meta-analysis� or self-observation of the steps you took to create your essay. A Cover Letter Should be 250 Words. The Essay Is Already Written Just Add The Cover Letter And Follow Below Comments On The Rubric That I Have Attached.

English 103 Rubric for Essays

Student:

Essay Assignment: This I Believe

MLA Format: Yes__X___ No_____ (If �No� 5 pts. deducted from original grade)

Does essay clearly respond to the assigned topic? Yes__X__ No_____ (If �No,� no credit is given. Essay must be rewritten to fulfill the assignment only according to the class revision schedule.)

Extra Points for On-Time Upload: +10

Essay Elements

Max pts. are listed
Excellent
Good
Improvement Needed
Unsatisfactory or Fail

Cover Page

25 pts.

Self-analysis of writing steps/process

Essay�s evolution from notes to final draft.

Qualities of thought

0

Writing Clarity

10 pts.

Correct sentences and grammar as part of effective expression;

word choice and sentence style

The writing is somewhat clear; however, there are quite a few sentence fragments and spelling errors.

8
Organization & Coherence

10

unified and �organic� beginning middle and end;

appropriate paragraph style and length

effective transitions, use of key words and phrases, clear and cohesive integration of quotations and any second source material
The paper is organized, but the single body paragraph is too long. It would have been ideal to create two body paragraphs.

7

Argument

15

Cohesive structure of thesis statement and topic sentences (correctly placed and clearly stated) directly affects argumentation

sound logic & other aspects of persuasive discourse (avoids bias, slanted language, unfounded claims, bias)

displays logos, ethos, pathos)

analysis or evaluation rather than summary or simple narration

The argument is clear, but is not clearly supported. Your body paragraph is unfortunately almost entirely summary instead of reasons for why you believe in football.

13
Support

10

Representative, sufficient, specific, and relevant supporting details

makes ample use of text and/or secondary sources to support points
The support used (the football game) is a good one, but you need to do more than just summarize the events – explain why exactly this game made you believe in the power of football. Do not let your examples/quotes speak for themselves.

7

Voice & Tone

5

Tone (including level of diction) is appropriate to subject

Writer�s voice is present throughout

Awareness of audience is apparent

The tone is a tad too informal at times.

3
MLA Style

N.A.

Correct use of quotations

Sufficient and correct notation of sources according to MLA guidelines