Concussion in Football

 
This essay is argument Synthesis essay.

Instruction from Professor:
Synthesis
Although at its most basic level a synthesis involves combining two or more summaries, synthesis writing is more difficult than it might at first appear because this combining must be done in a meaningful way, and the final essay must generally be thesis-driven. In composition courses, “synthesis” commonly refers to writing about printed texts, drawing together particular themes or traits that you observe in those texts and organizing the material from each text according to those themes or traits. Sometimes you may be asked to synthesize your own ideas, theory, or research with those of the texts you have been assigned. In your other college classes you’ll probably find yourself synthesizing information from graphs and tables, pieces of music, and art works as well. The key to any kind of synthesis is the same.

Whenever you report to a friend the things several other friends have said about a film or CD you engage in synthesis. People synthesize information naturally to help other see the connections between things they learn; for example, you have probably stored up a mental data bank of the various things you’ve heard about particular professors. If your data bank contains several negative comments, you might synthesize that information and use it to help you decide not to take a class from that particular professor. Synthesis is related to but not the same as classification, division, or comparison and contrast. Instead of attending to categories or finding similarities and differences, synthesizing sources is a matter of pulling them together into some kind of harmony. Synthesis searches for links between materials for the purpose of constructing a thesis or theory.

Key Features
• It accurately reports information from the sources using different phrases and sentences;
• It is organized in such a way that readers can immediately see where the information from the sources overlap;
• It makes sense of the sources and helps the reader understand them in greater depth.

Sometimes there is very little obvious difference between a background synthesis and a thesis-driven synthesis, especially if the paper answers the question “what information must we know in order to understand this topic, and why?” The answer to that question forms the thesis of the resulting paper, but it may not be a particularly controversial thesis. There may be some debate about what background information is required, or about why, but in most cases the papers will still seem more like a report than an argument. The difference will be most visible in the topic sentences to each paragraph because instead of simply introducing the material for the paragraph that will follow, they will also link back to the thesis and assert that this information is essential because…
On the other hand, all research papers are also synthesis papers in that they combine the information you have found in ways that help readers to see that information and the topic in question in a new way. A synthesis essay with a weak thesis (such as “media images of women help to shape women’s sense of how they should look”) will organize its findings to show how this is so without having to spend much time discussing other arguments (in this case, other things that also help to shape women’s sense of how they should look). A essay with a strong thesis (such as “the media is the single most important factor in shaping women’s sense of how they should look”) will spend more time discussing arguments that it rejects (in this case, each paragraph will show how the media is more influential than other factors in that particular aspect of women’s sense of how they should look).
Two types of Syntheses
An explanatory synthesis helps readers to understand a topic. Writers explain when they divide a subject into its component parts and present them to the reader in a clear and orderly fashion. Explanations may entail descriptions that re-create in words some object, place, event, sequence of events, or state of affairs. The purpose in writing an explanatory essay is not to argue a particular point, but rather to present the facts in a reasonably objective manner. The explanatory synthesis does not go much beyond what is obvious from a careful reading of the sources. You will not be writing explanatory synthesis essays in this course. However, at times your argumentative synthesis essays will include sections that are explanatory in nature.
The purpose of an argument synthesis is for you to present your own point of view – supported, of course, by relevant facts, drawn from sources, and presented in a logical manner. The thesis of an argumentative essay is debatable. It makes a proposition about which reasonable people could disagree, and any two writers working with the same source materials could conceive of and support other, opposite theses.
Preparing to write your essay
Regardless of whether you are synthesizing information from prose sources, from laboratory data, or from tables and graphs, your preparation for the synthesis will very likely involve comparison. It may involve analysis, as well, along with classification, and division as you work on your organization. Sometimes the wording of your assignment will direct you to what sorts of themes or traits you should look for in your synthesis. At other times, though, you may be assigned two or more sources and told to synthesize them. In such cases you need to formulate your own purpose, and develop your own perspectives and interpretations. A systematic preliminary comparison will help. Begin by summarizing briefly the points, themes, or traits that the texts have in common (you might find summary-outline notes useful here). Explore different ways to organize the information depending on what you find or what you want to demonstrate. You might find it helpful to make several different outlines or plans before you decide which to use. As the most important aspect of a synthesis is its organization, you can’t spend too long on this aspect of your paper! A synthesis essay should be organized so that others can understand the sources and evaluate your comprehension of them and their presentation of specific data, themes, etc.
The following format works well:
Writing the essay
The introduction (usually one paragraph)
1. Contains a one-sentence statement that sums up the focus of your synthesis.
2. Also introduces the texts to be synthesized:
(i) Gives the title of each source (following the citation guidelines of whatever style
sheet you are using);
(ii) Provides the name of each author;
(ii) Sometimes also provides pertinent background information about the authors,
about the texts to be summarized, or about the general topic from which the
texts are drawn.
The body of a synthesis essay:
This should be organized by theme, point, similarity, or aspect of the topic. Your organization will be determined by the assignment or by the patterns you see in the material you are synthesizing. The organization is the most important part of a synthesis, so try out more than one format.
Be sure that each paragraph:
1. Begins with a sentence or phrase that informs readers of the topic of the paragraph;
2. Includes information from more than one source;
3. Clearly indicates which material comes from which source using lead in phrases and
in-text citations. [Beware of plagiarism: Accidental plagiarism most often occurs
when students are synthesizing sources and do not indicate where the synthesis
ends and their own comments begin or vice verse.]
4. Shows the similarities or differences between the different sources in ways that make
the paper as informative as possible;
5. Represents the texts fairly–even if that seems to weaken the paper! Look upon
yourself as a synthesizing machine; you are simply repeating what the source says,
in fewer words and in your own words. But the fact that you are using your own
words does not mean that you are in anyway changing what the source says.
Conclusion
When you have finished your paper, write a conclusion reminding readers of the most significant themes you have found and the ways they connect to the overall topic. You may also want to suggest further research or comment on things that it was not possible for you to discuss in the paper. If you are writing a background synthesis, in some cases it may be appropriate for you to offer an interpretation of the material or take a position (thesis). Check this option with your instructor before you write the final draft of your paper.
Peer Review
Read a peer’s synthesis and then answer the questions below. The information provided will help the writer check that his or her paper does what he or she intended (for example, it is not necessarily wrong for a synthesis to include any of the writer’s opinions, indeed, in a thesis-driven paper this is essential; however, the reader must be able to identify which opinions originated with the writer of the paper and which came from the sources).
1. What do you like best about your peer’s synthesis? (Why? How might he or she do more of it?);
2. Is it clear what is being synthesized? (i.e.: Did your peer list the source(s), and cite it/them correctly?);
3. Is it always clear which source your peer is talking about at any given moment? (Mark any places where it is not clear);
4. Is the thesis of each original text clear in the synthesis? (Write out what you think each thesis is);
5. If you have read the same sources,
a. did you identify the same theses as your peer? (If not, how do they differ?);
b. did your peer miss any key points from his or her synthesis? (If so, what are they?);
c. did your peer include any of his own opinions in his or her synthesis? (If so, what are they?);
6. Where there any points in the synthesis where you were lost because a transition was missing or material seems to have been omitted? (If so, where and how might it be fixed?);
7. What is the organizational structure of the synthesis essay? (It might help to draw a plan/diagram);
8. Does this structure work? (If not, how might your peer revise it?);
9. How is each paragraph structured? (It might help to draw a plan/diagram);
10. Is this method effective? (If not, how should your peer revise?);
11. Was there a mechanical, grammatical, or spelling error that annoyed you as you read the paper? (If so, how could the author fix it? Did you notice this error occurring more than once?) Do not comment on every typographical or other error you see. It is a waste of time to carefully edit a paper before it is revised!
12. What other advice do you have for the author of this paper?

Notes from Professor:
Synthesis means putting ideas from many sources together in one essay/presentation. After surveying and or evaluating several books, movies, journals, articles, photos, or even classroom activities (conducting primary research counts as well), organize some of the information around a theme or a question, make generalizations and test them. In the final stages of drafting try to present your information in a logical way that clearly supports your argument.

In other words, a synthesis is a written discussion that draws on one or more sources, hopefully to reach a conclusion. It follows that your ability to write syntheses depends on your ability to infer relationships among sources – essays, articles, fiction, and also non written sources, such as lectures, interviews, observations. This process is nothing new for you, since you infer relationships all the time–say, between something you’ve read in the newspaper and something you’ve seen for yourself, or between the teaching styles of your favorite and least favorite instructors. In fact, if you’ve written research papers, you’ve already written syntheses. In an academic synthesis, you make explicit the relationships that you have inferred among separate sources.The purpose of an argument synthesis is for you to present your own point of view — supported, of course, by relevant facts, drawn from sources, and presented in a logical manner. The thesis of an argumentative essay is debatable. It makes a proposition about which reasonable people could disagree, and any two writers working with the same source materials could conceive of and support other, opposite theses.

Please remember that the synthesis is not a summary, a comparison, or a review; and while it does report, it is not a report. It is the result of an integration or amalgamation of what you’ve heard and read and your ability to use this learning to develop and support your argument.

Here is a copy of my Annotated Bibliography:

Gerald Pacheco
Professor Howell
English 122-106
Floating Deadline
Mandatory regulation is the most effective tool for post-concussion management
Baugh, Christine M., et al. “Perceived Coach Support and Concussion Symptom-Reporting: Differences between Freshmen and Non-Freshmen College Football Players.” Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 42.3 (2014): 314-322. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Nov. 2015.
Baugh et al. assert the challenges football athletes have transitioning from high school to college. The study asserts freshmen and non-freshmen had a different perception of support for self-reporting symptoms of concussions to the coaching staff. The study indicated non-freshmen who felt they had the support from their coach to report symptoms of a concussion reported and were not required to play while experiencing concussion symptoms. However, the study found that coach’s support could lead to many undiagnosed concussions and athletes returning to play with symptoms of a concussion.
Bazarian, Jeffrey J., et al. “Persistent, Long-Term Cerebral White Matter Changes After Sports-Related Repetitive Head Impacts.” Plos one 9.4 (2014): 1-12. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.
Bazarian et al. study analyzes the effects of repetitive head impacts (RHI) by using helmet-based accelerometers to estimate the average of RHI during a single season. The study occurred with ten Division III college football players and five non-athlete controls. Bazarian et el. stated, “the group underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), physiologic, cognitive, and balance testing at preseason, post-season, and after six-months of no-contact rest” (1). The results reveal diffusion tensor imaging change from preseason, post-season, and six-months of no-contact rest.
Case, David, and Edmond Richer. “Analysis of Sports Related mTBI Injuries Caused by Elastic Wave Propagation through Brain Tissue.” International Journal of Multiphysics 9.1 (2015): 1-8. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.
Case and Richer study “aimed to improve Finite element models use to predict the effect of impact on the brain, by taking into consideration the strains/stresses and pressure gradients created in the brain tissue by the propagation of elastic waves produced by the impact” (2). The finding of the study indicated intense pressure formed in specific areas of the brain could exceed the maximum pressure applied to the helmet. Case and Richer express, the Finite model and use of pressure wave propagation provided an “understanding of the mechanism of brain injury and improve the accuracy of mTBI prediction” (7).
Cook, Amanda, Harold King, and John A. Polikandriotis. “Where Do We Go From Here? An Inside Look Into The Development Of Georgia’s Youth Concussion Law.” Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 42.3 (2014): 284-289. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Nov. 2015.
The authors study recognizes Georgia as one of the last states to adopt a youth concussion law after Lysted Law of Washington State. The study compares Georgia’s youth concussion law with all 50 states and District of Columbia. The authors express the importance of coaches, athletes, and parents need to receive mandatory formal training provided by medical professionals trained in the management of concussion. This training will assist in understanding the importance of self-reporting and the decision of returning athletes to the playing field.
Drysdale, Thomas A. “Helmet-To-Helmet Contact: Avoiding A Lifetime Penalty By Creating A Duty To Scan Active NFL Players For Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.” Journal of Legal Medicine 34.4 (2013): 425-452. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.
Drysdale study analyzes chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE in the NFL. The study argues for the NFL to recognize the symptoms of CTE, implement regulation to prevent future concussion, and the future of the NFL. Drysdale study is compelling to discuss the consolidated concussion lawsuits filed against the NFL.
JOHNSON, L. SYD M. “Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem.” Journal of School Health 82.4 (2012): 180-185. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Nov. 2015.
Johnson’s study on “return to play guidelines” for concussion is on the largest group of athletes to play football, the high school athlete. The guideline is the only tool for preventing the athlete from returning to the playing field to soon. Johnson states, “Cognitive impairments affecting verbal learning and memory, flexibility and inhibition, attention and speed of information processing” (18). At the same time, the study makes a strong recommendation for children and adolescent athletes. The study reveal there is no guideline for safe return to play for children playing contact sports.
The annotated bibliography are the six sources I choose to write my argument synthesis essay. If you decide to change a source can you call or email me before Tuesday the first. Tuesday is the deadline for turning in my annotated Bibliography. I been thinking of a “causal-cause/effect” argument.

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